Advertising
Advertising

Published on August 19, 2020

14 Principles of Management for Effective Team Management

14 Principles of Management for Effective Team Management

Managing a team effectively isn’t easy. Although it can be learned through entrepreneurship, there’s a reason business leaders spend years in school studying how to manage people. There are many principles of management that one needs to learn to effectively manage people.

One of the key management thinkers is Henri Fayol. Despite having died more than a century ago, Fayol spelled out 14 principles that managers swear by to this day.

Beginning in the 1870s, Fayol published articles on mining topics.[1] But as he took on administrative responsibilities, he became more interested in management methods. Fayol proposed that there were five functions of management:

  1. Planning: According to Fayol, a manager’s first role is to put together a plan. How will the job get done?
  2. Organizing: To work efficiently, teams must tap the strengths of their respective members. Fayol realized the importance of putting the right people in the right roles.
  3. Commanding: Teams need directives from managers, Fayol understood. Managers must confidently command their teams.
  4. Coordinating: Fayol knew that any team must work as a unit. Effective managers help employees work in concert with each other.
  5. Controlling: Fayol didn’t think of controlling people in an authoritarian sense. He simply meant managers need to make necessary tweaks to processes and analyze results.

To fulfill those functions, Fayol pointed to his 14 principles. His approach—often called “Fayolism”—revolutionized how managers work.

Fayol’s principles of management aren’t rocket science, but it’s not always clear how to put them into practice. Let’s dig in.

1. Division of Work

The first principle of Fayolism is that specialization promotes efficiency. Workers will always be better at some tasks than others. They should focus their attention on tasks where they perform best.

As a manager, you’re responsible for distributing your team’s workload. Assigning tasks according to each team member’s strengths will allow them to accomplish better work in less time. Distributing work evenly also creates efficiency. Make sure one employee isn’t feeling overloaded or overwhelmed.

Advertising

2. Authority and Responsibility

Managers need the authority to delegate, impose consequences, and provide rewards. That authority derives, ideally, from the respect of the manager’s team. Managers must possess the skills and values that their team members admire.

With authority comes responsibility. Whether the team succeeds or fails, blame ultimately rests with the manager. That responsibility must be reinforced with accountability. The employer can reward or punish the manager, just as they can with their team.

3. Discipline

A manager must be able to teach and correct team members when warranted. Discipline should not be metered out solely as a punishment but as a way to improve the team member’s performance. When proper discipline is given and received, teams can grow and move past their mistakes.

Different teams will respond to different types of discipline. It’s up to the manager to discern what approach is best. A warning system can be implemented, with punishments laid out at each stage. Make your employees aware of any punishments they might receive as extra incentive to follow guidelines, and be prepared to keep your word.

4. Unity of Command

Unity of command means there can only be one manager on a team. Answering to multiple superiors can cause confusion and conflicts of interest.

While there will typically be various levels of management in an organization, team members must know who’s directly in charge of them. When questions or concerns arise, knowing who they should approach right off the bat makes team members more efficient.

5. Unity of Direction

Every team needs a common goal. What that is—and how it’s achieved—must be determined by the team’s manager. Teams with too many goals struggle to see the manager’s desired end.

Advertising

Think of it as a tug-of-war: When team members pull against each other, they typically get nowhere. Managers have to get everyone pulling in the same direction to make efficient use of their team members.

6. Subordination of Individual Interests

The interests of the group as a whole must be more important than those of each individual. With a group mindset, teams can reach greater heights than if everyone was working for themselves.

Managers must recognize that the team’s interests come before every member’s, including their own. Self-dealing or favoritism undermines the respect the team has for its manager. While individual rewards are important management tools, they must be given only when it serves the wider team.

7. Remuneration

Managers who expect loyalty and hard work from their team members must pay them fairly. Fair wages show employees not only that they’re appreciated but also that a certain quality of work is expected from them.

Offer wages at least equal to what your competitors do to their employees, but don’t stop there. Use benefits and personalized perks to sweeten the pot. Don’t try to cut corners: Consulting group Giftology argues “cheaping out” sends a worse message than giving nothing at all.[2]

8. Centralization and Decentralization

Centralization refers to who makes decisions for the wider team. A small company may be very centralized, with the owner and CEO making all the moves. A larger company with numerous branches will have to decentralize, allowing managers of each one to operate with greater autonomy.

There’s no one-size-fits-all degree of centralization. Determine what’s best by looking at the size of your team, the CEO’s preferences, and the individual managers’ strengths. Finding the perfect balance will boost team effectiveness.

Advertising

9. Scalar Chain

The management principle called the “scalar chain” refers to the idea that communication must run in an orderly fashion. It starts from the top, continues through the company’s managers, and eventually reaches individual contributors. This chain of command holds everyone responsible and ensures that each level of the company receives the same instruction.

Some modern managers question this principle. For example, Elon Musk told his employees at Tesla that they can bypass the chain of command to make communication quicker and more efficient.[3] He authorized even the lowest employees to contact leaders directly.

If in doubt, experiment. Authorize employees to contact executives directly about certain topics—such as new service lines or harassment—and check in with managers. Are they confused, or do they see their teams working more efficiently?

10. Order

In management, organization is everything. Everyone on the team needs to understand what tasks are and aren’t under the purview of their role. Defined roles minimize overlap and ensure that all tasks are being completed.

Try this: Ask each employee to write down their job duties. Are they on the same page as you, their manager? If not, decide what should be added or removed from each list of duties.

11. Equity

Can you think of a manager or supervisor you had in the past who you didn’t like? You’re not alone. A recent survey found that 57% of employees who left their job did so because of their boss.[4] That’s why Fayol urges managers to treat their employees with respect and kindness.

While there will be moments of discipline and tension, managers should always strive to treat their team members as equals. Leaders who value loyalty and dedication should express those sentiments to their employees before asking them to do the same.

Advertising

12. Stability of Tenure

Constant turnover is inefficient because employees need time to master their roles. Add in recruitment expenses, and turnover costs employers an average of $15,000 per worker.[5] Allow that cycle to continue, and you’ll be out of a job yourself.

Don’t wait to work on retention until you see signs of disengagement. Reward loyalty, and build the sort of culture you’d want to work in. Give feedback regularly so workers know where they stand.

13. Initiative

This management principle isn’t about managers taking work from other members of the team. In fact, it’s about encouraging team members to speak up and start on projects of their own volition.

While team members do need guidance, supporting their autonomy and critical thinking helps them grow. A speaker in my network, Jay Baer, talks about this all the time: Being helpful is more beneficial than being pushy.[6] Use rewards and discipline to point employees in the right direction.

14. Esprit de Corps

This French phrase translates literally to “the spirit of the body.” What Fayol meant by this is that team camaraderie matters. If a team doesn’t get excited about working together, it’s tough to bring out the best in them.

Use company culture events, such as picnics and happy hours, to nurture team spirit. Take time to get to know each other as people, not just as members of the team. Celebrate wins whenever you can.

Final Thoughts

Different people follow different principles of management. Some people even formulate their own. However, the fact that Henri Fayol’s principles of management are still being talked about today speaks to their value.

Implement them, and you’ll see: Henri Fayol never fails.

More Tips on Effective Management

Featured photo credit: You X Ventures via unsplash.com

Reference

More by this author

John Hall

John Hall is the co-founder and president of Calendar, a leading scheduling and productivity app that will change how we manage and invest our time.

How to Master Delayed Gratification to Control Your Impulses The Ultimate List of Deep Focus Music for Productive Work How to Complete Any Task in the Most Time Efficient Manner 8 Reasons Why You Have Trouble Concentrating How to Create an Action Plan and Achieve Your Personal Goals

Trending in Leadership

1 What Is Strategic Leadership And How to Be a Strategic Leader 2 Delegation of Authority: The Complete Guide for Effective Leaders 3 6 Characteristics of an Effective Leadership 4 15 Must-Have Qualities of a Good Leader 5 Top 15 Management Skills Successful Managers Have

Read Next

Advertising
Advertising
Advertising

Last Updated on November 3, 2020

How to Use the Prioritization Matrix When Every Task is #1

How to Use the Prioritization Matrix When Every Task is #1

It takes being productive to get things done correctly and on time. So how do you know which tasks are essential and which can wait? The answer is in the Prioritization Matrix, also known as the Eisenhower Matrix.

The matrix took its name after Dwight David Eisenhower.

Eisenhower was a general in the US army and the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961. As a five-star general and a Supreme Commander in the US Army, he drafted the strategy for an Allied invasion of Europe.[1]

Eisenhower had to make tough decisions every time about which tasks to prioritize out of many he needed to focus on daily. So, he came up with the famous Eisenhower Matrix, or the Prioritization Matrix.

What Is the Prioritization Matrix?

The Prioritization Matrix is a tool for rating your tasks based on urgency. It helps you know the critical activities and those tasks that you should bypass and can be useful in project management, small businesses, or personal tasks.

Eisenhower famously said of the matrix:

“Most tasks that are urgent are not important, and most tasks that are important are not urgent.”

This quote became the maxim for Eisenhower in managing his time.

There are four quadrants in the Prioritization Matrix, which help in comparing choices of what to do first and last, allowing you to prioritize projects and create strategic plan[2].

Advertising

Eisenhower Matrix Template

    The quadrants are:

    • Do
    • Schedule
    • Delegate
    • Eliminate

    Do

    Do is the first quadrant in the Prioritization Matrix, and it incorporates important activities. That is, those tasks you need to carry out urgently — crises, deadlines, and issues that need your urgent attention and are highly relevant to your life mission.

    Hw do you know which task falls into this quadrant?

    Start by analyzing your priorities, and then establish if it falls within the ‘do it now’ criteria. If the task is achievable within a day, or within 24 to 48 hours, it’s urgent.

    Another approach you can adopt in prioritizing tasks in this category is to adopt the “eat the frog” principle by Mark Twain. This principle recommends that you do the most urgent activities as soon as you wake up.

    Here’s a practical example.

    Let’s say you need to draft a content strategy and submit a report to your manager. It’s Saturday, and the deadline for submission is Monday. Can we say the activity is urgent? Definitely!

    Schedule

    The second quadrant of the prioritization matrix is Schedule. The Prioritization Matrix classifies tasks in this category as important but not that urgent.

    They are long-term objectives and tasks with no immediate deadline. Those tasks could include meditation, journaling, studying, family time, and exercising.

    You can plan out activities in this quadrant for some other period. For instance, you should exercise for good health, but you can allocate time to do it.

    Advertising

    Schedule these activities in such a way that they don’t transfer to the “Do” or “Urgent” quadrant. Ensure you have sufficient time to carry them out.

    Delegate

    The third quadrant of the prioritization matrix is Delegate.

    These tasks are not important to you but are quite urgent for others. This is where teamwork comes into play.

    You can technically perform tasks in this category, but it makes sense to delegate them. Delegating tasks will ensure you have more time to pursue activities in your first two quadrants.

    You should also monitor the tasks you have delegated. It will only amount to a sheer waste of time if you don’t have a tracking system for delegated tasks.

    Eliminate

    The last quadrant highlights your productivity killers. They are tasks that are not important to your goals and not urgent. The only way to boost your productivity is to eliminate them.

    Some examples are constantly checking your phone, watching movies, or playing video games.

    They could also be bad habits that you need to identify and delete from your daily and weekly schedule.

    Successful people have learned how to prioritize and stick to what’s important. They have learned to find a better person for a task or eliminate less significant tasks.

    Let’s consider two inspiring personalities that have designed their prioritization system.

    Advertising

    Warren Buffet developed a two-list prioritization model to determine which task deserves his best attention. The bottom line is bypassing things that are important and useful but not top of the priorities.

    Mark Ford, a business advisor, marketer, self-made millionaire, and author devised his strategy:

    “Start work on the most crucial priority, take a break, work on the second most important task, take a break, then sort out the less important activities and any tasks he received from other individuals by afternoon.” [3]

    How to Use The Prioritization Matrix

    Using the Prioritization Matrix can be tricky if you’re new at it, but by following a few simple steps, you can learn to utilize it in the best way possible.

    1. List and Rank Your Priorities

    Highlight all the tasks you need to carry out in a day. Then, classify them with weighted criteria based on urgency and importance.

    Identify any activity that requires prompt action. I’m referring to a task that if you don’t complete that day, it could produce a grave consequence. For instance, if you don’t submit your content strategy, other content writers cannot work. It means you need to check for high-priority dependencies.

    2. Define the Value

    The next step is to examine the importance and assess which of them impacts your business or organization the most. As a rule of thumb, you can check which tasks possess higher priority over others. For instance, you need to attend to client’s requirements before you take care of any internal work.

    You can also estimate value by examining how the task impacts the people and customers in the organization. In a nutshell, the more impact a task has on people or the organization, the higher the priority.

    3. Take out the Most Challenging Task

    Procrastination is not a symptom of laziness, but avoidance is. The truth is that you will typically avoid tasks you don’t want to do. The former CEO of Goldman Sachs, Lloyd Blankfein, once said he would take out the most dreaded task first thing when he got to the office.

    Brian Tracy called these tasks the frogs you need to eat. That will remove the nagging dread, which mounts pressure on you when you postpone necessary tasks[4]. This is where the Prioritization Matrix can help; eat the “Do” frogs immediately.

    Advertising

    If you need help overcoming procrastination, check out this article.

    4. Know What’s Important to You

    As long as you are in this cosmos, you will always encounter different choices that may be contradictory to your goals. For instance, a fantastic promotion that requires excessive travel will isolate you from important relationships. If you are not priority-conscious, you may accept it, even though your family is your priority.

    Therefore, it makes sense to identify what is important to you and to prepare yourself not to compromise those important things for immediate pleasure or gain.

    Yogi Berra captioned it this way:

    “If you do not know your destination, you might end up somewhere else.”

    5. Establish Regular “No Work” Time

    YouTube CEO Susan Wojcicki established a rule not to check her emails between 6 pm and 9 pm. According to a CNN Business report, she was the first woman to request maternity leave when Google just got started. She prioritizes dinner time with her family despite being the CEO of YouTube[5].

    Is it possible to cut out time for our relationships and interests outside of work?

    Of course, and that’s why you need to set out your “no work” time. This approach will enable you to renew your energy levels for the next task. Also, you will be in the best position to introspect as you are not in your usual work zone.

    6. Know When to Stop

    You can achieve everything on your list sometimes. After you have prioritized your workload and assessed your estimates, remove the remaining tasks from your priority list and focus on your most urgent and important tasks.

    Conclusion

    It’s not enough to be successful at work. Ensure you make out time for your family and an important relationship in your life.

    Getting started and finding time may be tricky, but with some practice using the Prioritization Matrix, you’ll find that you are more productive and better able to divide your time between the things that are important to you.

    More Tips on Prioritizing

    Featured photo credit: William Iven via unsplash.com

    Reference

    Read Next