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Published on February 1, 2021

How to Learn And Practice Skills in the Most Effective Way

How to Learn And Practice Skills in the Most Effective Way

When it comes to learning something, there are several other skills involved that we don’t always notice. Things like studying skills are important in how we gather and retain knowledge for example. The main way to developing your skills is to practice those skills.

There are many ways where you can practice and apply what you learned, but there are some methods that are much better to use than others.

Below, I talk about some of the most valuable ways to practice skills that I’ve used in the past. These continue to be my go-to practice methods whenever I learn something and want to apply it right away.

1. Deliberate Practice

As the saying goes:

“It takes exactly 10,000 hours of practice to be considered an expert at something.”

Over the years, many people have echoed this quote as a measurement for how much one should work on something. And while there are many angles that you can analyze that quote, it represents one key and often overlooked concept: deliberate practice.

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Anders Ericsson was the first to uncover this phenomenon and has explained in his book, Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise, how deliberate practice can be leveraged and how many authors who explained this in the past are misguided about their interpretation.

Deliberate practice is the method to overcome learning plateaus with rapid and quick bursts of continued improvements, Ericsson explains.

Another way to look at it is through the progression from naive practice to purposeful practice and finally to deliberate practice. Generally speaking, there are three key elements needed for deliberate practice:

  • There is the discipline necessary to get things done but also finding meaning in the task by making goals around it and having a personal investment in it.
  • The field you’re practicing in has to be in a well-defined field. For example, you won’t see deliberate practice in things like gardening, consulting, or most hobbies. You will see it in competitive settings, musical arts, sports, and chess to name a few.
  • You’ll also need a teacher or mentor or something equivalent to that. The equivalent would be finding someone already skilled at what you wish to learn, study their techniques, and apply them in your own life. This allows you to create a feedback loop as you have a point of contact or information if things didn’t go as planned.

Some other methods to help with deliberate practice are things like:

  • Breaking a skill down into different parts
  • Having a schedule that keeps you motivated
  • Having a coach (Even though you can learn without one, it’s better to have one.)
  • Seeking feedback online

2. Spaced Repetition

One of the big flaws with deliberate practice is the fact that it’s very niche in how you can apply it. For example, I’m unable to use deliberate practice to improve my stretches or workout regimen at all as I have no desire to compete. All I’ve ever wanted from it was to relieve various aches and pains from sitting at a desk and working. It’d be a whole other story if I had plans to run marathons with a competitive attitude.

Instead, what would be more applicable to me and for many other people is spaced repetition. It’s a technique that is overlooked by schools—among many other learning techniques—but is very relevant to how we learn. In fact, it’s the perfect method to retain information, practice skills, and grow meaningfully as we get older.

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As the name suggests, spaced repetition is all about encountering certain pieces of information regularly. The more often it shows up, the less often you’ll need your memory refreshed on it.

But another contributing factor to this is the gradual increase of these occurrences. The book Principles: Life and Work by Ray Dalio is one of my favorites, but simply reading it once per month might not be enough for me to retain certain passages. If I wanted to memorize the entire book front to back, I’d have to be reading through the book constantly and reiterating the passages in my head daily.

When it comes to practicing something more worthwhile than memorizing words from a book, there are two key things to keep in mind:

  • The amount of information you’re retaining;
  • And the amount of effort that’s needed to retain that level of information.

Putting those factors in mind, how you can use spaced repetition in your own life is as simple as following these four steps:

  1. Review your notes. Within 20-24 hours of the initial intake of information, you’ll want to make sure the information is written down and reviewed. During the reviewing process, you’ll want to read them and then look away to see if you can recall the key points.
  2. Recall the information the next day without the use of your notes at all. Do this during periods where not much is going on, like when you’re sitting down, going for a walk, or relaxing in general. You can also increase efficiency through flashcards or quizzing yourself on concepts.
  3. From that point on, every 24 to 36 hours, recall the information over the next several days. They don’t have to be lengthy recalls. Merely remember the session and what was discussed. At this point, check your notes, but try not to rely on them all the time.
  4. Finally, study it all over again after several more days have passed. If you’re studying for a test, make sure it’s done a week before that. A week gives your brain enough time to reprocess concepts.

3. Feedback Loop

Another popular method that I use to learn skills is a feedback loop. This particular method is similar to deliberate practice in that you’ll be looking for feedback through some point of reference.

However, the feedback loop takes a slight turn in that you’re the one who’ll be giving yourself feedback.

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Another way to explain it is that it’s the process where a learner appreciates the information about their performance and leverages it to optimize the quality of their learning methods or style.

Creating a feedback loop for your learning pursuits is simple if you follow this 6-step process:

  1. First, establish goals and definite outcomes—everything from the goals to the level of proficiency you want and when you want to gain competencies in that area.
  2. Second, begin with the basics of the basics before delving into bigger challenges. Simple information creates the foundation and becomes a crucial element to taking on bigger challenges.
  3. Third, test yourself. To see if you’re learning—or wasting time—you’ll need to find some way to test yourself. This can be through in-depth discussions on the subject or taking some kind of test online. If it’s a skill you can apply, you can base it off on the number of positive reviews on a job that demands that skill or the efficiency in performing the task now compared to before when you first started.
  4. Fourth, teach other people. If all is going well, then step up the skill by teaching it to others. Even though you’ll be improving as time goes on, teaching people now is another way of reinforcing concepts and getting new perspectives.
  5. Fifth, reflect. Self-reflection is the ultimate way of getting feedback as you can look at your progress and make self-assessments. Are you progressing enough? Are you satisfied with the results? If the answer is no, then ask how can you move to a higher aim or proficiency.
  6. Lastly, look for a mentor. Even though the feedback loop can be done by yourself, having a guiding hand can help you with being a better learner. It’s a new perspective and can allow you to grasp concepts faster.

4. Teaching What You Learn

While those methods above are wonderful in learning and practicing your skills, I’m a big fan of learning-by-teaching as well. Several studies revolve around this method as a way of retaining information, understanding concepts, and ultimately being better at the skill or subject.

One study that comes to mind is where researchers uncovered that teaching improves the teacher’s learning as it compels the teacher to retrieve information from previously studied subjects.[1]

This makes a lot of sense as I often do research for these articles. Even though I’m well versed in the topic I write about, I still make a point of researching these topics. New information is constantly rising to the surface and from that, you could learn some new things.

When it comes to practicing skills efficiently using this, you simply need to create a teaching atmosphere. Some things that come to mind are things like:

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  • Writing articles on the subject and making a point of showing research to prove points or statements
  • Tutoring individuals
  • If you’re going to school, you can always propose to your teacher for future lessons to have them organized by students themselves and teach your peers.

5. Seeking Help

The final way to improve your efficiency to practice skills is to look for help. This can be very difficult to do as we think when we need help, it means that something is wrong or broken.

In this case, we think that seeking help to improve and practice our skills means we’re broken or we’re wrong. Most people never want to admit that and see this as negative and that looking for help is a sign of weakness.

In reality, it’s the opposite.

How I got to this point in my life was by reaching out to other people and doing things that I wouldn’t normally do. I got back into reading and started to read some self-help books that gave me some valuable lessons that I could apply in my own life.

With that in mind, I see looking for help as a sign of strength in that you’re accepting your weaknesses and doing something about them. Those changes will take some time. But by seeking help, you’re speeding up the process in how quickly those changes and improvements happen.

Similar to the feedback loop, you’re able to get new perspectives and insights that you otherwise wouldn’t have thought of. So, don’t be afraid to be looking for help in various ways.

Final Thoughts

As long as you are willing to practice skills, you have multiple systems that you can tap into to boost the efficiency of learning and growing in any field you like. Applying these will be challenging at first, but if you’re passionate enough about improving yourself in particular fields, these are good upgrades to consider.

More Tips on How to Practice Skills

Featured photo credit: Clark Young via unsplash.com

Reference

More by this author

Leon Ho

Founder & CEO of Lifehack

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Last Updated on April 26, 2021

How to Know Which Types of Learning Styles Work for You?

How to Know Which Types of Learning Styles Work for You?

One of the biggest realizations I had as a kid is that teaching in school could be hit or miss for students. We all have our own different types of learning styles. Even when I was in study groups, we all had our own ways of uncovering solutions to questions.

It wasn’t only until later in my life did I realize how important it is to know your own learning style. As soon as you know how you learn and the best way to learn, you can better retain information. This information could be crucial to your job, future promotions, and overall excelling in life.

Best of all about this information is that, it’s not hard to figure out what works best for you. There are broad categories of learning styles, so it’s a matter of finding which one we gravitate towards most.

What Are the Types of Learning Styles?

Before we get into the types of learning styles, there’s one thing to know:

We all learn through repetition.

No matter how old you are, studies show that repetition allows us to retain and learn new information.[1] The big question now is what kind of repetition is needed. After all, we all learn and process information differently.

This is where the types of learning styles come in. There are eight in total and there is one or two that we prefer over others. This is important because when reading these learning styles, you’ll feel like you’d prefer a mixture of these styles.

That’s because we do prefer a combination. Though there will be one style that will be more predominate over the others. The key is finding which one it is.

Visual Learning

A visual learner (also known as the spatial learner) excels at deciphering anything visual – typically maps and graphs.

If you are this type of learner, you likely excelled at geometry in math class but struggled with arithmetic and numbers. To this day, you might also struggle with reading and writing to a degree.

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While visual learners are described as “late bloomers,” they are highly imaginative. They also process what they see much faster than what they hear.

Verbal Learning

Verbal learning, on the other hand, is learning through what’s spoken. Verbal learners excel in reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Because of that, they are likely the ones to find thrills in tongue twists, word games, and puns.

They also thoroughly enjoy drama, writing, and speech classes. But give them maps, or challenge them to think outside of the box and they’ll struggle a bit.

Logical Learning

Not to be confused with visual learners, these learners are good at math and logic puzzles. Anything involving numbers or other abstract visual information is where they excel.

They can also analyze cause and effect relationships quite well. Part of that is due to their thinking process being linear.

Another big difference is their need to quantify everything. These people love grouping information, creating specific lists, agendas or itineraries.

They also have a love for strategy games and making calculations in their heads.

Auditory Learning

Similar to verbal learning, this type of learning style focuses on sounds on a deeper level. These people think chronologically and excel more in the step-by-step methods. These are likely the people who will watch Youtube videos to learn or do something the most.

These learners also have a great memory of conversations and love debates and discussions. Chances are likely these people excel at anything oral.

Also as the name suggests, these individuals have great musical talents. They can decern notes, instruments, rhythms and tones. That being said, they will have a tough time interpreting body language, expressions and gestures. This also applies to charts, maps and graphs.

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Social Learning

Otherwise known as the interpersonal learner, their skills are really unique. They don’t particularly excel in classrooms but rather through talking to other people.

These are the people who are excited for group conversations or group projects. Mainly because they are gifted with coming up with ideas and discussing them.

They also have a good understanding of people’s emotions, facial expressions, and relationship dynamics. They are also likely the first people to point out the root causes of communication issues.

Intrapersonal Learning

The reverse of interpersonal learning, these people prefer learning alone. These are the people who love self-study and working alone. Typically, intrapersonal learners are deeply in tune with themselves meaning they know who they are, their feelings, and their own capabilities.

This type of learning style means you love learning something on your own and typically every day. You also have innate skills in managing yourself and indulging in self-reflection.

Physical Learning

Also known as kinesthetic learning, these people love doing things with their hands. These are people who loved pottery or shop class. If you’re a physical learner, you’ll find you have a huge preference in using your body in order to learn.

This means not just pottery or shop class you enjoyed. You may also have loved sports or any other art medium like painting or woodwork. Anything that involved you learning through physical manipulation you enjoyed and excelled at.

Though this doesn’t just apply to direct physical activities. A physical learner may also find that they learn well when both reading on any subject and pacing or bouncing your leg at the same time.

Naturalistic Learning

The final learning style is naturalistic. These are people who process information through patterns in nature. They also apply scientific reasoning in order to understand living creatures.

Not many people may be connected to this one out of the types of learning styles primarily because of those facts. Furthermore, those who excel in this learning end up being farmers, naturalists or scientists.

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These are the people who love everything with nature. They appreciate plants, animals, and rural settings deeply compared to others.

How to Know Which One(s) Suit You Better?

So now that you have an idea of all the types of learning styles we have another question:

Which one(s) are best for you?

As a reminder, all of us learn through a combination of these learning styles. This makes pinpointing these styles difficult since our learning is likely a fusion of two or more of those styles.

Fortunately, there are all kinds of methods to narrow down which learner you are. Let’s explore the most popular one: the VARK model.

VARK Model

Developed by Neil Fleming and David Baume, the VARK model is basically a conversation starter for teachers and learners.[2] It takes the eight types of learning styles above and condenses them into four categories:

  • Visual – those who learn from sight.
  • Auditory – those who learn from hearing.
  • Reading/writing – those who learn from reading and writing.
  • Kinesthetic – those who learn from doing and moving.

As you can probably tell, VARK comes from the first letter of each style.

But why use this particular model?

This model was created not only for discussion purposes but for learners to know a few key things — namely understanding how they learn.

Because our school system is focusing on a one-size-fits-all model, there are many of us who struggle learning in school. While we may no longer go to school, these behaviors persisted into our adult lives regardless. While we aren’t learning about algebra or science, we may be learning new things about our job or industry. Knowing how to best retain that information for the future helps in so many ways.

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As such, it can be frustrating when we’re in a classroom setting and aren’t understanding anything. That or maybe we’re listening to a speech or reading a book and have no clue what’s going on.

This is where VARK comes back in. To quote Fleming and Baume:

“VARK above all is designed to be a starting place for a conversation among teachers and learners about learning. It can also be a catalyst for staff development- thinking about strategies for teaching different groups can lead to more, and appropriate, variety of learning and teaching.”

Getting into the specifics, this is what’s known as metacognition.[3] It helps you to understand how you learn and who you are. Think of it as a higher order of thinking that takes control over how you learn. It’s impossible to not use this while learning.

But because of that metacognition, we can pinpoint the different types of learning styles that we use. More importantly, what style we prefer over others.

Ask These Questions

One other method that I’ll mention is the research that’s done at the University of Waterloo.[4] If you don’t want to be using a lot of brainpower to pinpoint, consider this method.

The idea with this method is to answer a few questions. Since our learning is a combination of styles, you’ll find yourself leaning to one side over the other with these questions:

  • The active/reflective scale: How do you prefer to process information?
  • The sensing/intuitive scale: How do you prefer to take in information?
  • The visual/verbal scale: How do you prefer information to be presented?
  • The sequential/global scale: How do you prefer to organize information?

This can narrow down how you learn and provide some other practical tips for enhancing your learning experience.

Final Thoughts

Even though we have a preferred style of learning and knowing what that is is beneficial, learning isn’t about restriction. Our learning style shouldn’t be the sole learning style we rely on all the time.

Our brain is made of various parts and whatever style we learn activates certain parts of the brain. Because of this fact, it would be wise to consider other methods of learning and to give them a try.

Each method I mentioned has its merits and there’s not one dominate or superior method. What method we like is entirely up to our preferences. So be flexible with those preferences and uncover what style works best for you.

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Featured photo credit: Anna Earl via unsplash.com

Reference

[1] BrainScape: Repetition is the mother of all learning
[2] Neil Fleming and David Baume: VARKing Up the Right Tree
[3] ERIC: Metacognition: An Overview
[4] University of Waterloo: Understanding Your Learning Style

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