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Last Updated on January 27, 2021

How Cognitive Learning Benefits Your Brain and Grows Knowledge

How Cognitive Learning Benefits Your Brain and Grows Knowledge

Cognitive learning is an integral part of building knowledge. This is the type of learning that allows us to make connections in the world, building on bits of knowledge that we already possess.

When seeking to understand what knowledge and learning really are, we must turn to the appropriate field of study. Here, we must turn to the branch of philosophy known as epistemology.

Epistemology is defined as the study of the nature and scope of knowledge and justified belief.[1] Epistemology deals with the production of knowledge.

But what exactly brings about the production of knowledge? And what can we do to trigger cognitive learning to improve our knowledge, leading to changes in our brain?

The simple answer is that we must learn to think, but we can’t stop there. We must learn to think about our thinking. That’s when cognitive learning comes into place.

Cognition (thinking) is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.

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Metacognition (thinking about thinking) is awareness and understanding of one’s own thought or mental processes.

Through an understanding of cognition and metacognition, we can begin to understand how knowledge is gained, stored, and improved.

Constructing Knowledge

In order to bring forth knowledge, we must learn to think. If we follow the advice of Derek and Laura Cabrera, we find that Information x Thinking = Knowledge.

How do we construct knowledge through the cognitive learning theory? Let’s examine an analogy for knowledge construction offered by Steve Stockdale in Here’s Something About General Semantics: A Primer for Making Sense of Your World.[2] Stockdale compares the “Building Block” analogy and the “Spiral” analogy in knowledge construction.

Building Blocks Analogy

Stockdale posits:

“Typically, we grow up with a view of learning using the building blocks analogy.”

Here, we do the following:

  • We see things segregated and compartmentalized.
  • We learn our alphabet as a block of stacked letters.
  • We learn our numbers as a block of numbers.
  • We learn to spell by visualizing blocks of letters.

Spiral Analogy

Stockdale argues:

“However, if we apply what we ‘know’ about what goes on around us, we can choose to use a more appropriate analogy: we tend to learn in more of a spiral pattern than simple building blocks.”

Stockdale describes the spiral nature of the learning process as follows:

  • Just as the spiral expands from the center, our learning is continual and never-ending.
  • As we learn about one thing, we enable ourselves to learn more about something else, from a different perspective.
  • What we learn relates to what we’ve already learned, and what we’ve yet to learn, just as the spiral connects, or relates, one region to another.
  • The spiral more appropriately implies the continually-changing and more complex nature of ourselves and the world around us.

The Pieces of Cognitive Learning

To effectively engage in cognitive learning experiences, several different cognitive processes need to be activated[3]. These include:

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Elements of Cognitive Learning graphic

    Comprehension

    Learning something just for the sake of learning it often leads to forgetting it quickly. If you’ve been through high school, you know this to be true. Instead, we need to comprehend what we learn by applying it to prior knowledge and understanding how that knowledge can benefit us in the long term.

    Memory

    When you use comprehension to understand the knowledge more deeply, it gets stored in your long-term memory, which allows you to recall that information later. This will integrate the new knowledge into your memory bank, which will allow you to then build off it in the future.

    Application

    Knowledge is stored best when we take what we have learned and apply it to real life situations. This allows us to engage in problem-solving and critical thinking using the new information we’ve learned.

    The Benefits of Cognitive Learning

    If we think of cognitive learning as a spiral that never ends, we can begin to understand the benefits[4] of cognitive learning strategies and the possibilities they offer.

    1. Increased Comprehension

    Cognitive learning promotes a hands-on approach, where individuals obtain knowledge by exploring the world around them. Because information is obtained in this way, it’s easier to apply it to future problems in your everyday life.

    2. Boosts Confidence

    Because you are better prepared to handle challenges and solve problems using cognitive learning, you will feel more confident in your abilities to overcome difficult tasks or moments in life. By solving problems using knowledge you have acquired, you will continue to learn and build off your previous knowledge.

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    3. Promotes Lifelong Learning

    Because of the spiral that we discussed above, cognitive learning never stops. Each bit of information is added to the previous bit, extending the spiral and increasing your overall store of information. When you begin to understand this limitless capacity for knowledge, it creates a sense of excitement around learning.

    The Bottom Line

    Attaining cognitive learning benefits is like storing information on a computer’s hard drive (your brain). The next step is improving the brain’s ability to provide quick access to the information stored on it. The hard drive stores the information, but to connect and speed up your processing power, you need to insert thinking. Thus, Information x Thinking = Knowledge.

    By understanding how you think and learn, you can improve your level of understanding on any concept.

    Just as you should not use a map from 1940 to navigate across a country, you should not use a dated mental map to improve your learning capacity. Or better yet, use your newfound knowledge to draw your own map and work from there.

    More Tips on Learning

    Featured photo credit: CDC via unsplash.com

    Reference

    More by this author

    Dr. Jamie Schwandt

    Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt & Red Team Critical Thinker

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    Last Updated on February 11, 2021

    7 Reasons You Won’t Start Studying Until It’s Too Late, And What To Do About It

    7 Reasons You Won’t Start Studying Until It’s Too Late, And What To Do About It

    For most of us, the experience of studying for an exam can be captured in one word: panic. You’ve got 18 hours, exhausted, and sitting there staring at an equations sheet full of gibberish. Why? Why didn’t I start earlier?

    Believe it or not, there are forces acting against you, pulling you away from starting early enough so that you can comfortably learn new material. Here are 7 of the most insidious reasons why you don’t start early, and what you can do about it.

    1. You’re anticipating hard work

    Procrastination is generally viewed as this guilt-ridden character defect shared almost universally by all students. The problem is, this is exactly what we should expect to happen from an evolutionary perspective.

    Humans are known to be cognitive misers:[1] we conserve mental resources whenever possible, especially when facing tasks not viewed as “essential to our survival.”

    In other words, we put off studying until the last minute because (1) we know the work is hard and will require a lot of mental energy, and (2) until there’s the threat of actually failing the exam (and therefore potentially being humiliated publicly) we’re not in enough emotional pain to motivate us to start studying.

    Additionally, when your brain anticipates multiple outcomes that are all viewed as “painful” (the pain of studying vs. the pain of failing out of college) you become immobilized, unable to choose the lesser of two evils, and push off the work even further.

    Schedule in time for yourself first and then fill in the gaps with study time.

    As Niel Fiore discusses in bestselling classic, The Now Habit, part of the reason you procrastinate is because you see no end in site.

    Think of the difference between a 100 yard dash and a marathon. In the first case you’re able to give maximum effort because you can see the finish line and know it will be over soon. The marathon runner is not so lucky. They know there’s a long road ahead filled with pain and exhaustion, and subconsciously conserve their effort to ensure they can make it through all 26.2 miles.

    This is all to say, if you know you get to go hang out in your buddy’s dorm room and goof off for an hour after you study, you’re much more likely to want to invest that energy.

    As a side benefit, you end up taking advantage of Parkinson’s Law. Because your work expands to fill the time allotted, by scheduling less time for studying, you actually become more productive and focused.

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    2. You’re sleep deprived

    Who in college isn’t pounding the caffeine?

    Students who force themselves through weeks upon weeks of 4-6 hour sleep nights, are significantly deteriorating two aspects of their mental performance critical to studying for exams: motivation and vigilance.

    Studies show that poor sleep negatively impacts motivation.[2] But really, no one needs a study to tell them how much worse your outlook on life is when you’re low on sleep.

    And vigilance,[3]the ability to maintain concentrated attention over prolonged periods of time, is also significantly reduced during a period of either acute (staying up all night studying), or chronic (cutting sleep short for multiple days) sleep deprivation.[4]

    Set yourself an end-of-the-day alarm.

    Yes, studying more consistently for shorter chunks will allow you to spread it over a longer period of time; therefore, preventing the need to deprive yourself of sleep just to get your coursework done. But really, it’s a psychological issue.

    There are a million things we’d rather stay up and do, than go right to bed after a full day of classes, only to have to get up and do the same thing over again. This is a chicken/egg problem: if I don’t get sleep I procrastinate studying, but if I go to bed I’ll just have to get up and study. Again, lose-lose. We need to break the cycle.

    Set yourself an alarm. But not in the morning. Set your alarm for 45 minutes before when you should get to sleep and allow yourself to sleep for a full 8 hours. If you adhere to that you’ll be surprised how many hours of free time seem to materialize.

    Study time + free time + sleep = happy and successful students.

    3. You have a false sense of security

    You may think you’re being a diligent student, sitting there in the lecture, listening intently, copying down page after page of notes from the professor. You might even be following along and raise your hand here and there. But there’s a big difference between feeling like you understand something, and actually being able to reproduce it on a test.

    This is what we call passive learning, and it’s the best way to ensure that you’ll spend a lot of time and effort trying to learn new material, without actually being able to retain any of it.

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    Quiz yourself.

    Don’t be fooled by your professor’s overly logical explanations. This dude already knows the material, so it’s easy for him to explain it in a way that others find understandable. The real challenge is whether or not you can do the same.

    If you’re wondering if you actually understand something, quiz yourself. Or better yet, explain it to someone (or yourself, but be warned: people tend to stare).

    As Einstein liked to say, “If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it well enough.”

    By routinely quizzing yourself, you’ll get a dose of reality of whether you actually know the material or not, instead of what most students do: assume they know it until the night before the test, when they proceed to freak out because they can’t do any of the practice problems.

    4. Not all study time is created equal

    Fact: seven hours of studying over 7 days is much more effective (more learning per time spent) for understanding new material than 7 hours of studying in one chunk. This is especially true for technical courses with new jargon you have to internalize.

    Chunk your study time.

    The brain uses a ton of energy (20% of our resting metabolic rate), and there’s only so much you can expend per day. To maximize your retention of new material, you want to take advantage of both active learning and recovery.

    Because the brain consolidates new neural pathways during sleep, particularly during REM sleep, the more sleep cycles you intersperse between your study hours, the more likely it is that you will retain the material and be able to whip it out on test day.

    This also allows you to take advantage of spaced repetition. Instead of having to constantly review your material to keep it in the forefront of your memory, you can follow a cycle of ever-increasing time intervals between review sessions (the “forgetting curve”), decreasing the overall amount of time needed to re-learn material you might have forgotten from the beginning of the semester when the final rolls around.

    5. The planning fallacy

    Humans systematically overestimate what can be accomplished in the short-term, and underestimate what can be accomplished in the long-term.

    Ironically (and sadly), we only have this problem evaluating our own tasks – providing a pretty accurate picture of how long things will take when evaluating someone else’s situation objectively.

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    Use the 50% rule.

    Estimate as conservatively as you can, how much time it’s going to take to study for your exam, assuming you start early and work consistently.

    Done?

    Okay. Now add 50% to that estimate.

    This will give you a more accurate picture of how much time you really need to allocate to starting studying.

    6. You think you have more study time than you do

    141025-study-definition

      Pull up your Sunday schedule. What do you see?

      Oh looks like I’ve got a big chunk of free time from 4pm to 10pm. Perfect, I’ll just squeeze in 5 or 6 hours of studying and then call it a night.

      Try again. It’s more like 2-3 hours.

      This is another type of planning mistake: overestimating how much productive time we can extract from any given period.

      Things we tend to forget: we need to eat; we need to sleep; there will be interruptions (yea right like you’re actually going to shut off your phone).

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      But another thing we fail to account for: the body goes through 90-120 minute activity cycles (called the Ultradian Rhythm). So even though you may be sitting there, highlighting your textbook for 3 hours straight, you really only have the ability to absorb material for 1.5 to 2 hours before you need a period of rest.

      Cut your estimated hours in half.

      If you think you have 8 hours on Sunday after the game to study, forget it. You actually have 4 or less when you take out time for eating, breaks, and normal daily activities.

      7. You can’t get motivated or focused

      A lot of us tend to sit around and wait…

      Waiting for the wave of motivation to strike us to finally get started on the homework assignment due in 24 hours, or studying for the midterm.

      Here’s the problem: motivation comes and goes, but the demands of school and learning and everyday life don’t. And if you’re relying on your motivation to keep you focused, everything you’re doing is going to be in a perpetual state of lateness and last-minute-ness, because there’s never enough motivation to go around.

      Focus on the process, with the end in mind.

      Why are you in school? Why do you want a degree? Get clear on exactly what your motivations are.

      But thinking about the future is not enough. That vision of the future that drives your emotional intensity needs to be linked to your daily activities. (e.g. “Each day I study for Calculus brings me one step closer to being a doctor and making a difference in people’s lives.”)

      What is the one set of activities each day that will virtually guarantee success in your coursework?

      And what can you do to organize your day, set up incentives, quit things that don’t matter, etc. to virtually guarantee you will do that one set of activities day in and day out, despite motivation?

      Featured photo credit: Melanie Deziel via unsplash.com

      Reference

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