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Published on December 29, 2020

Become a Pro at Thinking Strategically in 4 Simple Steps

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Become a Pro at Thinking Strategically in 4 Simple Steps

Thinking strategically is boring—if you don’t know how to do it. Getting stuck feels bad and moving forward feels good.

In this article, you will learn how to never again have to feel that strategic thinking is boring by becoming a pro at it. First, you will learn how to improve the way your brain functions so that it helps instead of hinders you. After that, you will learn how to think strategically to achieve your goals.

Take a second to think about how improving your strategic thinking skills might help you in your life. What problems do you need to solve? What goals do you have? By understanding how to improve how your brain works, you can solve problems and achieve your goals more efficiently.

Thinking strategically is defined as a mental process applied by a person to set themselves up to efficiently achieve a goal in a specific context.[1]

For example, you might engage in the mental process of pondering how to read this article to the end without losing focus. Your pondering of this question is a distraction, so stop daydreaming, keep focused, and read on now!

Nah, just kidding. Seriously though, pondering how to read this article without losing focus is an example of thinking strategically. You are considering what things you can do to achieve your goal of efficiently finishing this article.

I’ll break the process of strategic thinking down more in-depth in steps 3 and 4 of this article. But first, here’s an overview of the 4 simple steps to become a pro at thinking strategically:

  1. Meditate to get a clear perspective.
  2. Use cognitive enhancers to sharpen your mind.
  3. Understand the problem/goal you want to solve/achieve.
  4. Find the most efficient methods for solving your problem.

The first two steps are about improving your brain function to get you into a state of mind conducive to strategic thinking, and the final two steps outline how to actually apply this mental superpower.

1. Meditate to Get a Clear Perspective

To think strategically, you will need a clear perspective on the problem you are going to try to solve and the methods available to you for solving it.

Meditation is an excellent way to clear any gunk out of your mind. Having a meditation habit can probably improve your strategic thinking skills in the long term, but it is actually in the short term that meditation has the most prominent benefits for thinking strategically.[2][3]

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I suggest that you meditate just before thinking strategically for anywhere between 10 seconds and 2 hours depending on the importance of the goal/problem that you want to think about.

Specifically, mindfulness meditation without any specific object of attention—just resting your mind and observing everything that comes into your consciousness as closely as possible—is the sort of meditation that tends to help me think more strategically as opposed to instinctively.

By deliberately observing your thoughts, you will become more and more aware of your assumptions and preconceptions in regards to the nature of the problem and the solutions to it that you’ve considered so far.

2. Use Cognitive Enhancers to Sharpen Your Mind

Cognitive enhancers—supplements that if used appropriately enhances cognitive performance for the user—can help you think better. These substances are often also called “nootropics” or “smart drugs”.

Many people have misconceptions about these, either believing that they are super-effective and should be banned to prevent people from cheating with them or that they don’t do anything at all.[4] Both of these beliefs are mostly wrong.

Some nootropics certainly can have cognitive-enhancing effects, but these are only extremely good if you are performing poorly, to begin with. Think of Caffeine for example. It doesn’t raise your IQ by 40 points, but it helps you think, especially if you haven’t used it in a while.

To use nootropics to think strategically, it is important to think strategically about using nootropics. What do you want to improve in your mental toolkit? Memory, focus, mood, energy, or stress levels?

I work at Nootralize, which is a company that helps people understand the science of nootropics. In our review of more than 500 placebo-controlled studies that examined the effects of more than 200 nootropics in healthy humans, we found that most nootropics that people use and claim enhance their mental performance are severely underresearched. This doesn’t necessarily mean that these substances are ineffective, just that the scientific data needed to know is not available.

Overall, the 5 most science-backed nootropics are Omega 3’s, Walnuts, Bacopa Monnieri, Caffeine, and Sage. But it’s important that you know why you want to use nootropics. Caffeine wouldn’t help you at all with decreasing stress levels for example, but Bacopa Monnieri might.[5]

There are even some nootropics, such as Cocoa and Lemon Balm, that might help you in your meditation practice.[6] Meditation and nootropics are just two of many science-backed methods for improving your brain function so that it can help you think more strategically.

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3. Understand the Problem You Want to Solve

A strategy is not an end in itself but a means to some other end. The trigger for you to start thinking “Aha! It’s time to think strategically!” is when you have just identified a problem.

When you have identified a problem that you want to solve, it’s time to understand the why, when, and where of the problem.

Ask yourself:

  • Why do you want to solve this problem?
  • When do you want this problem solved?
  • Where (in what context) do you want this problem solved?

For example, you could answer these questions by saying, “I’m trying to lose 10kg in 2021 because I think that will increase my day-to-day energy levels.” It is clear from this statement that you want to increase your energy levels and also want to solve the problem of how to lose 10kg. It is also clear that you want this done before the end of 2021, and that it is you and not your sister or Donald Trump that you want to change the weight of.

Getting clear on the context of the problem will enable you to compare the efficiency of the methods available for solving your problem.

4. Find the Most Efficient Methods for Solving Your Problem

To find the best solution to your problem, you will have to understand the underlying causes of the problem. What factors play a role in the problem at hand? What variables can, if manipulated, help you solve your problem?

What resources are needed for you to manipulate those variables? This can be people, money, time, energy, food, information, etc. Based on the resources you have available, you will have to find a way to economically solve your problem. To understand which method is the most efficient and economical, you need to compare your options.

Imagine you’re trying to learn chemistry. Specifically, you’ve identified that right now you want to learn the chemical formula for water in a short amount of time. You now understand what you want to do, when, and in what context. Now, it’s time to find an efficient method for learning the chemical formula for water.

The resources you have available are a glass of water, your phone which has internet access, and your mother, a biologist, who is sitting next to you ready to help.

How would you go about learning the chemical formula for water? Most people would probably not even try doing anything with the water to understand its chemical formula. But why?

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Water on its own doesn’t have any of the information that is necessary for you in your quest to solve your problem. You would need advanced chemistry tools and knowledge as well as quite a bit of time to find out the chemical formula for water with the help of the glass of water.

Would you ask Google or your mom?

For comparison between two options when there’s no clear winner in terms of efficiency in helping you solve your problem, a simple pro/con list can be very useful.

Your mother can answer your question, likely accurately, in a very short amount of time when you’ve asked her what the chemical formula for water is. Google can also answer your question, more likely accurately, but it would probably take longer to open your phone, open the web browser, type Google, hit enter, type “What is the chemical formula for water?” hit enter, select a good source, and read the answer.

This simple pro/con list could be illustrated in a table:

    When comparing options for solving your problem in practice, it quickly becomes clear that knowing the context of your problem is crucial. If you know that you’re looking to understand the chemical formula for water because you’re going to have a test on this in school next week, then you might accept the fast and high accuracy response from your mother.

    But if you’re going to hold a speech in front of the nation as the president of the United States, you likely will want to invest more time to get an answer that is definitely accurate.

    This is an example of why you need to fully understand the context of the problem you’re trying to solve before looking at methods for solving it. Thinking strategically allows you to understand the context of the problem.

    Pros/cons, revenues/costs, rewards/risks, benefits/side effects—all of these are terms that describe the positive and negative aspects of solutions or tools that can be used to solve problems.

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    In some circumstances, the problem is so small that it would take more time to create a pro/con list on paper or to create a clear definition of why you want to solve this problem, which is when a clear and sharp mind comes in extra handy.

    When Not to Think Strategically

    In the many situations that happen daily where small problems need to be solved, you can cut the time needed to select a solution to the problem down to the time it takes for you to think about the pros and cons of a problem.

    You likely do this more or less consciously already, but becoming aware that you are solving problems can help you take a step back—perhaps meditate for 10 seconds—and with a nootropic-fueled mind, see the entire list of pros and cons of the possible solutions to a problem in front of you.

    Thinking strategically takes time. People who are really good at strategic thinking know when thinking strategically is overkill.

    You don’t need to write a pro/con list for which pair of socks you will use tomorrow morning or even think of the pros and cons of the alternatives you have. Sometimes, it will give you the best results to just act and to do so quickly.

    I encourage you to think strategically now about which situations you want to think strategically about in the future. Personally, I find that the more important it is for me that a problem is solved and that the resources needed to solve the problem are used efficiently, the more strategically I want to think.

    If I had a test next week for which I needed to know the chemical formula for water, I would not get a pen and paper and create a pro/con list. It would take too much time relative to the importance of the problem. I would just act.

    On the other hand, if I wanted to use a nootropic, I would read quite a lot online and in the scientific literature about its risks and potential benefits because nootropics alter your biology and your biology creates your experience. Since my experience is very important to me, I would invest more time and effort in thinking more strategically.

    Conclusion

    To become a pro at thinking strategically, you need to when to think strategically and when to just act on instinct. To determine this, understand what sort of problem you have in front of you. When you’ve understood your problem in-depth, it is time to understand the solutions available and find the best one for your situation.

    To do these things flawlessly and efficiently, meditation and cognitive enhancers can be useful. They can sharpen your mind to the point at which thinking strategically is easy and fun.

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    Featured photo credit: airfocus via unsplash.com

    Reference

    More by this author

    David Rönnlid

    David is the lead content creator at Nootralize, a company with a mission to help people feel and perform better.

    Become a Pro at Thinking Strategically in 4 Simple Steps

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    Published on August 9, 2021

    12 Best Brain Foods To Help You Focus Like A Laser

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    12 Best Brain Foods To Help You Focus Like A Laser

    Do you ever feel like your brain can function better than it is currently? Have you ever had moments of laser sharp focus and wished they stayed with you forever?

    We have all had those moments where we found ourselves being super productive and having lengthened periods of concentration and focused attention, and if there was a way we could make such kind of mental state a permanent state for us, we would definitely go for it.

    And while we cannot make the state come back and stick with us forever in just an instant, there is a way we can slowly cultivate it in our lives in the long term.

    One of these ways is by being keen on eating brain boosting foods. Some foods enhance the regions of the brain that are linked to concentration, focus, reasoning, thinking abilities, and overall brain health. By eating these foods regularly, you can also improve your brain function and slowly work to a healthy and well performing brain.

    Let’s take a closer look at the 12 best brain foods to take to boost your focus and overall mental health.

    1. Coffee

    Coffee is among the most popular beverages that sharpen your focus and increase productivity. Millions of people across the world rely on it to help them through demanding tasks at work and assignments at school.

    The reason why coffee has proven to be effective over the years is due to the two components in it that largely enhance the brain.

    These components are antioxidants and caffeine.

    Antioxidants help with protecting the brain from common mental health conditions such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease.[1][2]

    Caffeine, on the other hand, is responsible for influencing the brain in various positive ways including blocking out a brain chemical called Adenosine that makes you want to sleep and increasing the levels of serotonin neurotransmitters which in turn boosts your mood, increase your level of alertness and concentration.[3][4][5][6]

    However, it is important to note that taking coffee with moderation is the way to make the most of it. If you take more than 4 cups a day, you might be setting yourself up for the nasty side effects that come with it which are restlessness and inability to sleep.[7]

    Striking a good balance between coffee and other beverages will help you avoid the chances of experiencing the side effects. You can try drinking coffee only on those days you want to tackle tedious tasks, and only when you are working on them to maximize its effects in your life.

    2. Fatty Fish

    When the words fatty fish are mentioned, you naturally direct your attention to salmon, pollack, cod, sardines, mackerel and tuna.

    These contain omega 3 fatty acids, which are known to help with improving learning abilities and memory, not to mention helping with building nerve and brain cells.[8][9][10][11]

    Improved cognitive performance brought about by omega 3 fatty acids can be attributed to the fact that they help increase flow of blood in the brain. [12]

    Also, when it comes to general mental health, eating oily or fatty fish helps to delay the mental decline that comes with age, as well as depression and reduce learning problems. [13] [14]

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    Omega 3 has also been associated with the lowering of the protein called Beta-amyloid in the brain that is responsible for forming destructive clamps in people who struggle with Alzheimer’s.[15]

    You are encouraged to add fatty fish to your eating plan and consider having it often.

    Also, if you would like to obtain omega 3 fatty acids without having to feel like you have to eat fish every time, you can use other alternatives such as walnuts, flaxseeds and avocados. They are also good sources of omega 3.

    3. Maca

    Maca is a plant from Peru that is grown in Central Andes and has been cultivated a little over 2000 years now. Its scientific name is Lepidium meyenii and is used as a foodstuff as well as a medicinal plant.

    It is said to bring about many health benefits including boosting learning abilities and memory, improving mood, increasing energy levels and endurance, improving sexual health in men, and regulating blood pressure.[16]

    When it comes to the mental health benefits, Peruvian natives in the Central Andes attribute their children’s good academic performance to regular use of maca.[17]

    While there are different varieties of maca, studies have found that the black variety is the one that shows strong effects on mental health improvement, and both hydroalcoholic maca extract and boiled aqueous maca extract have the same effect on the brain.[18]

    Scientific studies on maca are still in their infancy and the cause of the effects that it has shown are not yet fully established. However, it is suggested that Macamides, which are maca compounds, might be behind its potency.[19]

    You can add maca to your smoothies, energy bars, oatmeal, and any baked foods to enjoy its benefits.

    4. Green Tea

    Green tea is another known stimulant that helps you remain alert. It contains two compounds that go a long way in influencing the brain.[20]

    First, it contains caffeine which accounts for the alertness.

    Although coffee contains a much higher quantity of caffeine than green tea, the latter is found suitable to use for those who prefer a well toned effect of caffeine.

    Caffeine helps with regulating neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, dopamine and adenosine, as earlier mentioned, that helps with keeping you awake and in good balance in terms of moods and brain function.[21][22]

    Second, it contains. L-theanine.

    L-theanine is an amino acid that can cross the blood-brain barrier and into the brain which then promotes increase in GABA (Gamma aminobutyric acid) which promotes relaxation.[23][24][25]

    It also increases the alpha waves in the brain which are responsible for the calm, conscious and relaxed mental state.

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    When L-theanine and caffeine are combined, they both have a much powerful effect, and this explains why taking green tea for many people has been found more rewarding than coffee.

    L-theanine has also been linked to other mental health benefits such as improving memory and protection from mental illnesses like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.[26][27]

    Taking green tea in the morning and just before going for a physical exercise helps.

    5. Green Leafy Vegetables

    Greens are packed with nutrients that enhance the brain in great ways. Broccoli, Swiss chards, kales, dandelion greens, collards and spinach are among the vegetables that have high nutritional value that make them useful for brain health.

    Broccoli, for instance, has antioxidants and Vitamin K, among other plant compounds that contribute to better memory, anti-inflammatory effects and brain protection benefits.[28][29][30]

    Kale is heavily packed with nutrients like Vitamin A, B6, C, K, potassium, manganese, copper and calcium that promote brain development, slowing cognitive decline caused by age, depression and even various health conditions like Alzheimer’s.[31][32][33][34]

    Generally, leafy vegetables contain a variety of nutrients including vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that elevate various regions of the brain that are associated with memory, alertness, processing of information and overall brain health.

    Working with delicious green smoothies and recipes that use a lot of greens will largely contribute to a better functioning brain.

    6. Dark Chocolate

    Other than the sweet taste, dark chocolate also boosts your brain.

    It contains three compounds that make this possible, which are, caffeine, antioxidants and flavonoids.

    Since we have already seen that caffeine offers the stimulating effects that keep you alert and antioxidants help with keeping mental illnesses and cognitive decline at bay, let’s take a closer look at flavonoids.

    Flavonoids are micronutrients that reduce neuroinflammation, protect neurons from neurotoxin-based injury and are potentially effective in enhancing learning, cognitive performance and memory.[35][36] [37]

    Studies have also revealed that dark chocolate brings about a positive feeling.[38]

    Dark chocolate contains cacao, which is often referred to as cocoa. Aiming to eat dark chocolate that carries more than 70% cocoa ensures that you get optimal benefits from it.

    7. Nuts

    Nuts such as walnuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, pecans, to name a few, contain several brain improving nutrients.

    They come with the popular antioxidant, Vitamin E, that protects the brain cells and cell membranes from oxidative stress and damage by free radicals.[39][40][41]

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    Long term consumption of nuts has contributed to a sharper memory, better academic performance and lower risks of getting mental illnesses too.[42][43]

    They have also shown abilities to improve the factors that account for good heart and brain health.

    All nuts have their nutritional benefits but you are encouraged to eat walnuts more as they have a much higher value due to the presence of high levels of alpha-linolenic acid, which is a type of omega 3 fatty acid.

    8. Avocado

    Avocado is surprisingly a berry, and it is referred to as a big berry.

    Although it hasn’t been fully studied yet, it is believed to carry vitamins B5, B6, C, E and K. Also, it comes with folate and potassium.

    There are also low amounts of other nutrients including copper, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, and iron that are present in it.

    Moreover, it contains a monounsaturated fatty acid called Oleic acid, which is part of what makes olive oil good to use. This fatty acid is known to have many benefits, some of which are lowering inflammation, and brain development.[44]

    Adding it to your recipes or making smoothies, and regularly eating it together with your favorite fruits will help you take advantage of its nutritional value.

    9. Eggs

    There are 4 micronutrients in eggs that give the brain an extra edge, folate, choline, vitamin B6 and B12.

    Folate helps to slow down the mental decline that comes with age.[45]

    Choline is used by the body to increases the levels of a neurotransmitter known as Acetylcholine that is associated with memory, mental function and moods.[46][47][48]

    The yolk of an egg is where the choline micronutrient is in high quantities, and people who desire to increase their choline levels in the body are encouraged to focus on that part.

    Vitamin B6 brings down the high levels of an amino acid called Homocysteine in the blood that causes depression and other psychiatric issues.

    It also plays the role of increasing the levels of neurotransmitters like GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid), serotonin and dopamine, which modulate emotions.

    Vitamin B12 also helps with reducing the symptoms of depression as well as preventing losing neurons that in turn cause poor memory.[49]

    10. Citrus Fruits

    Citrus fruits are categorized into lemons (which include meyer lemons and eureka lemons), sweet oranges (which include blood orange, Valencia, cara cara and navel), limes (which include kaffir, Persian and key lime), mandarin (which include tangelo, tangor, satsuma and clementine), grapefruit (which include ruby red, white and oroblanco) and others such as yuzu, sudachi, citron and pomelos.

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    They have the B vitamins as well as Vitamin C, copper, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium. There are also lots of varieties of carotenoids, essential oils and flavonoids present in citrus fruits.

    On top of that, they are also known to possess antioxidating and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Vitamin C reduces inflammation, offers protection to neurons from oxidative stress, modulates neurotransmission (communication between neurons), and also influences neuronal development.[50]

    Some of the minerals in citrus fruits have been found to reduce symptoms of depression in women.[51]

    They have also been associated with influencing communication through the nerves and regulating neurotransmitters.[52]

    The flavanoids protect the nervous system from damage through the anti-inflammatory effects they have. And this helps to keep mental health conditions like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s away.[53][54]

    11. Turmeric

    Turmeric is a spice we add to our foods to make it delicious that also does a bit of magic to our brains.

    Curcumin is a primary active component in turmeric that easily passes the blood brain barrier.

    It brings about anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that drag along the benefits of improved memory, promoting growth of new brain cells and managing moods.[55][56]

    Also, it has shown potential to handle Alzheimer’s diseases, although it has not been fully confirmed as reliable treatment.[57][58]

    12. Beetroots

    Beetroots which are commonly referred to as beets are also great brain enhancers.

    They can help prevent mental decline that is associated with poor blood flow to the brain. They have nitrates that encourage blood vessel dilation that then allow more blood and oxygen to flow to the brain, and thus enhance its functions.[59]

    More specifically, they improve flow of blood to a part of the brain known as the frontal lobe.

    This is a region that is linked to higher cognitive functions including concentration and attention, problem solving, reasoning and judgment, motor function, impulse control, memory, social interaction and emotions.

    Conclusion

    There you go, the best brain foods that you should make your closest friends.

    You should aim to have them often if you would like to see an improvement in your brain function in the coming months. Looking for recipes that use the foods mentioned above as ingredients and adding them to your recipe book is a good place to start.

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    Also, mixing them up with the foods you like eating goes a long way in not only making sure that you are minding your brain health but also enjoying what you eat in the process.

    Featured photo credit: Maddi Bazzocco via unsplash.com

    Reference

    [1] PubMed.gov: Effects of coffee/caffeine on brain health and disease: What should I tell my patients?
    [2] US National Library of Medicine: Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Properties of a Coffee Component in the MPTP Model of Parkinson’s Disease
    [3] PubMed.gov: Effects of caffeine on mood and performance: a study of realistic consumption
    [4] PubMed.gov: Caffeine and adenosine
    [5] PubMed.gov: The role of adenosine in the regulation of sleep
    [6] PubMed.gov: Roles of adenosine and its receptors in sleep-wake regulation
    [7] US National Library of Medicine: The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review
    [8] National Center For Complimentary And Integrative Health: Omega-3 Supplements: In Depth
    [9] PubMed.gov: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and their Role in Central Nervous System – A Review
    [10] National Library of Medicine: A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids
    [11] PubMed.gov: Novel insights into the effect of vitamin B₁₂ and omega-3 fatty acids on brain function
    [12] PubMed.gov: Quantitative Erythrocyte Omega-3 EPA Plus DHA Levels are Related to Higher Regional Cerebral Blood Flow on Brain SPECT
    [13] PubMed.gov: Omega-3 fatty acids and dementia
    [14] PubMed.gov: Fish consumption and cognitive decline with age in a large community study
    [15] Harvard Medical School: Foods linked to better brainpower
    [16] US National Library of Medicine: Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
    [17] PubMed.gov: Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands
    [18] PubMed.gov: Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice
    [19] US National Library of Medicine: Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands
    [20] PubMed.gov: Effect of Green Tea Phytochemicals on Mood and Cognition
    [21] Wiley Online Library: Adenosine, Adenosine Receptors and the Actions of Caffeine
    [22] PubMed.gov: Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects
    [23] PubMed.gov: The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent
    [24] ScienceDirect: L-theanine—a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans
    [25] PubMed.gov: L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state
    [26] PubMed.gov: Green tea extract enhances parieto-frontal connectivity during working memory processing
    [27] PubMed.gov: Neurological mechanisms of green tea polyphenols in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases
    [28] PubMed.gov: Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults
    [29] Increased dietary vitamin K intake is associated with less severe subjective memory complaint among older adults
    [30] US National Library of Medicine: Assessing Competence of Broccoli Consumption on Inflammatory and Antioxidant Pathways in Restraint-Induced Models: Estimation in Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex
    [31] ScienceDaily: B vitamins and the aging brain examined
    [32] PubMed.gov: The Importance of Maternal Folate Status for Brain Development and Function of Offspring
    [33] PubMed.gov: Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12
    [34] PNAS: Preventing Alzheimer’s disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment
    [35] US National Library of Medicine: Flavonoids and brain health: multiple effects underpinned by common mechanisms
    [36] Harvard Medical School: The thinking on flavonoids
    [37] PubMed.gov: Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period
    [38] PubMed.gov: The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood
    [39] PubMed.gov: Effects of vitamin E on cognitive performance during ageing and in Alzheimer’s disease
    [40] PubMed.gov: The effect of adrenaline and of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agents on ATP concentration and on incorporation of 32Pi into ATP in rat fat cells
    [41] PubMed.gov: Vitamin E-gene interactions in aging and inflammatory age-related diseases: implications for treatment. A systematic review
    [42] US National Library of Medicine: LONG-TERM INTAKE OF NUTS IN RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDER WOMEN
    [43] PubMed.gov: Cognition: the new frontier for nuts and berries
    [44] US National Library of Medicine: Neuroprotective effects of oleic acid in rodent models of cerebral ischaemia
    [45] US National Library of Medicine: Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function
    [46] PubMed.gov: Choline: an essential nutrient for public health
    [47] Pubmed.govThe relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort
    [48] NCBI: Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline
    [49] PubMed.gov: Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment
    [50] PubMed.gov: Preventive and Therapeutic Potential of Vitamin C in Mental Disorders
    [51] NCBI: Association between Lower Intake of Minerals and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly Japanese Women but Not Men: Findings from Shika Study
    [52] Harvard Medical School: Precious metals and other important minerals for health
    [53] PubMed.gov: Role of Quercetin Benefits in Neurodegeneration
    [54] PubMed.gov: Neurodegenerative Diseases: Might Citrus Flavonoids Play a Protective Role?
    [55] PubMed.gov: Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial
    [56] PLOS ONE: Curcumin Enhances Neurogenesis and Cognition in Aged Rats: Implications for Transcriptional Interactions Related to Growth and Synaptic Plasticity
    [57] US National Library of Medicine: The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer’s disease: An overview
    [58] NCBI: The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer’s disease: An overview
    [59] NCBI: The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease

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