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Published on May 20, 2020

What is the Delegation Model and How to Use it?

What is the Delegation Model and How to Use it?

Something as effective as delegation didn’t just come out of nowhere. It wasn’t that one day someone decided to divide their workload among their team and the term delegation was introduced.

Instead, delegation is based on entire delegation models, and these extensive models are backed by thorough research.

These are tried and tested models that, if you understand well, can be used to improve your delegation technique.

What is the Delegation Model?

The delegation model can be divided into two parts.

The first part of the model is another model – the situational leadership model. This is the part that explains which leadership style should be used as per the nature of your followers.

In the second part, the 5 levels of task delegation are explained. This will allow you to assign jobs and follow them up in a way that ensures time efficiency along with quality results.

The Situational Leadership Model

The situational leadership model is quite extensive.[1] It is a guide towards leaders who can choose between the four suggested leadership styles.[2]

4 Leadership Models

The four leadership styles are:

  • Telling
  • Selling
  • Participating
  • Delegating

Telling

A telling leader is someone who communicates the best, although this communication is only one-way.

Such leaders can shout orders all day long. It is for teams whose members have minimal knowledge, expertise, or skill to fulfill the job at hand.

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Selling

The second type of leadership style is selling.

Do your team members question the reasons behind every order? Well, this style is perfect for you.

You will be selling the task to your team. Selling leaders have to do a lot of explaining so that every team member can get a clear idea of what’s in the leader’s mind.

Participating

Participating leaders maintain authority but, at the same time, let their subordinates make their own decisions. This is ideal for teams where the workers are highly capable of doing the project.

The leader can assist the decision-making for the team members to ensure a smooth workflow.

Delegating

Lastly, there’s delegating leaders. They fully put the task in the hands of their subordinates based on whatever delegation models they prefer. However, they continue to facilitate the process.

Delegating leaders generally take on the role of the other three types of leaders as well. They have to sell the task to certain subordinates, tell to a few, and adopt the participating style for the rest.

Follow Your Followers

As per the situational leadership model, a leader has to adopt a style according to the nature of the team. Unlike other leadership models, this one suggests that you take into account your team and make decisions accordingly.

You might be an amazing seller but that does not guarantee success as a selling leader. However, if your team is easily influenced, it allows you to put your persuasion skills to use.

This strategy increases the chances of acceptance and success as a leader. It isn’t easy. But, it is highly useful, specifically for delegating leaders.

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As leaders, you have the authority to test the skills of your team members.

Now, there are various ways to figure this out. You can observe the behavior of each individual while performing a task, you can learn this as time goes by or you can schedule regular surveys to get this information.

Based on what information you receive, you’ll notice that there are four types of individuals.

The first type is those who have the skill and will power to do whatever they are assigned. Secondly, there are team members who are capable yet they lack motivation. Similarly, the third type of individuals are not skilled but they are highly inspired. Lastly, some team members will neither have the skill not the will power to do what’s assigned.

Task Delegation

If your team is a mix of the four types of workers, which is mostly the case, then delegation will work perfectly.

The second part of delegation gives you the autonomy to vary your leadership style from person to person.

Yes, you still have one leadership style overall. But as for individual delegated tasks, you can adopt different techniques to make sure that everyone works to the best of their ability.

For example, for a team member who is skilled yet lacks the motivation to do the job, you can become a telling leader. A strict order may be the push they need to put their abilities to use.

You can also adopt the participating technique. With a lot of the decision power in their hand, they might feel responsible and that can trigger their productivity.

5 Levels of Delegation

To implement these leadership styles, the delegation model suggests 5 levels of task assignment.

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Beginning from level 5, it is where maximum independence is given to the subordinates. The leader has the mindset that the subordinate will fulfill the assigned task and submit it whenever needed.

Level 1 is the complete opposite. It is the other end of the extreme where the leader has to provide maximum possible assistance. The subordinate needs a lot of facilitation to provide quality output.

The rest of the levels between these two extremes are midways. Level 3, for example, is where both the leader and subordinate put in the effort. On level 4, the leader has to offer more than the subordinate, and similarly, level 2 is where the subordinate puts in more than the leader.

None of these levels are strict. The general rule of thumb is to have two extremes on level 1 and 5 and customize the rest as per the need of the situation.

All leaders are given the autonomy to control what is done on each level regarding their team and organization.

Application

All the aforementioned information is applied simultaneously in a real-life situation. There are a lot of tips and tricks for smart delegation, but the most important one is that you use your evaluation and the 5 levels to make the right decision.

There are 3 possible scenarios.

The first one is where you, as the leader, randomly pick and choose who should do what. You assign tasks without weighing the needs of the task with the skills of the individual. As you might have already guessed, this is the worst kind of delegation.

Another situation is where you have put the first part of the delegation model to use. You’ve identified the weak and strong spots of each subordinate. You now have enough knowledge to figure out which part of the project can be done the best by who. So, you delegate authority and tasks based on this knowledge. However, you simply tell each individual to ‘go and do it’.

The last scenario is ideally the best application. Based on the identified skills, the delegator adopts different leadership styles to promote the best performance out of every subordinate.

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Using Delegation Models in Real Life

Let’s assume you’re the leader of a team of 5. Your team is responsible for managing a social media campaign for your organization. You’ll need a writer, social media manager, some sort of graphic expert, data analyst, and a PR person.

You know that among your team of 5, there is enough expertise to do the project. However, this skill isn’t divided equally. So, person A is an expert writer whereas person B can manage social media and also knows enough about PR. On the other hand, person C has all the mathematical skills but is useless for this project.

That’s not all.

You also notice that person A is the most highly motivated. But, for whatever reason, person B seems to be very low. Person C is completely uninterested. Let’s assume person D and person E have a mediocre level of skills and motivation for this project.

In this case, person A is no issue at all. You ‘tell’ them their task and ask them to bring it back on the due date. That’s level 1 of delegation.

For person B, you need to very ‘participating’. You may also need to ‘sell’ the task to increase the inspiration level of this person. You adopt level 4 of delegation so you ask them to consult you a couple of times before the deadline. This way you can keep a close check to make sure that they are working smoothly.

With person D and E, you can go for level 2 or 3. So these individuals continue to work on their own but there can be one meeting before the deadline to check on their progress. Since they aren’t the most skilled for the job, one meeting will be just enough to keep them on track.

Person C is best left out if possible. Otherwise, level 5 delegation can be used. Continuous assistance can help this person learn a new skill and provide something for the project.

Conclusion

Delegation models are highly useful. You can improve the performance of your team immensely by offering customized delegation and leadership.

Apply this model to your leadership from today to get the best out of your subordinates!

More Tips on Delegation

Featured photo credit: Hannah Busing via unsplash.com

Reference

More by this author

Leon Ho

Founder & CEO of Lifehack

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Last Updated on August 13, 2020

12 Essential Apps for Entrepreneurs To Be Highly Productive

12 Essential Apps for Entrepreneurs To Be Highly Productive

If you are an entrepreneur, then you are aware of the importance of time management. There are only 24 hours in a day, which means you must manage your hours properly to be able to get a lot of work done.

With so much on your shoulders, you need to get organized. How do you achieve that? You do it by becoming tech-savvy and incorporating productivity apps to help you remain on the right track. Below are 12 essential productivity apps for entrepreneurs.

1. Evernote

    Evernote makes it on the list because of one simple reason, besides being your little note book for scribbling your thoughts: Its freeware version is available for Web, iOS and Android. Stay organized across all your devices. Sync files, save Web pages, capture photos, create to-do lists and record voice reminders. What more do you need? Apart from all this, you can also search your tasks on the go.

    2. DropBox

      DropBox delivers instant connectivity and enables the sharing of photos, documents and videos with any laptop or mobile device through the free cloud-based file-storing service. This app is extremely handy for sharing files with your team, which prevents back-and-forth emailing. With the version control feature, you have a convenient way of sharing the latest version with your team.

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      3. Audible

        Ever wondered where entrepreneurs get their ideas from? Surely, they aren’t born with them! Any established entrepreneur you come across is probably very well-read. Hint: Take a chance at reading books and gaining knowledge to spruce up your mind. To help you do just that on the go, try Audible. It lets you listen to books without having to actually focus on reading while you are out travelling or just doing chores.

        4. TripIt: Travel Planner

          Being an entrepreneur means a lot of travelling. It gets hard to keep track of travelling schedules and bookings. With TripIt you no longer have to worry, because it organizes your travels by forwarding your booking confirmations to an email address.

          5. Lastpass

            “Errr…so what was the password?” With so many things on your mind, it can be cumbersome to remember passwords that are usually a combination of various letters and numbers. With a freeware version available for PCs and Macs, Lastpass is your personal-password manager, and form filler, that frees you from remembering your passwords. It costs $12 for the premium version that is available to download on your mobile device.

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            6. Any.Do

              Want to enter tasks on your iPhone? Use Any.Do. With its simple interface, you can add tasks either by speech or typing. If you’re logged on to your Facebook account, you can even share tasks with your contacts. Want to be alerted about a task? Add an alarm, and highlight it so that it takes precedence over other tasks. You can also add further notes and put them in a personal or work folder. The app also allows syncing with other devices to make sure you are always at the top of your game.

              7. CamCard

                Entrepreneurs attend several conferences during the year where they meet useful contacts. Exchanging business cards is the norm in conferences, but it is also very easy to lose a business card and, ultimately, a  business prospect! Don’t let this happen to you. With CamCard, you can take a picture of your business card and have all the details automatically uploaded into your phone contacts and other email accounts. Because of its accuracy, you can be assured of flawless scanning. The best part is that you can sync data across other devices too. The app is usually free for iPhone, but its cost on other mobile phones is $3.26.

                8. Flowdock

                  A mix of chat and inbox tools, Flowdock is a convenient way of collaborating with team members on various projects. The best part is that the app works on most browsers and mobile platforms, and it gives you features such as drag and drop, file uploads and activity streams. Your team members can get instant updates about any change on the project to which they can respond through chat messages.

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                  9. Instapaper

                    The Internet is filled with blogs and articles. Amp up your creativity by reading new posts at a time that suits you. Through Instapaper, you can save an interesting article to read at a more convenient time and in a reader-friendly format.

                    10. Expensify

                      While travelling, you probably want to keep your receipts to claim office expenses once you get home. But why go through the hassle of keeping all these receipts when a smartphone can do the same for you? By using your phone’s camera, you can take pictures of your receipts as a digital record in chronological order. Expensify also lets you log mileage, meal expenses and other business-related travel costs.

                      11. Upwork

                        Screening through resumes and tracking applicants can be cumbersome. You want to hire the best possible people for your company without wasting too much time scanning resumes. So use Upwork to help you perform these tasks; the app helps you manage the entire hiring process. This allows you to spend more time hiring instead of doing manual paper-work sorting out resumes.

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                        The app is also online so it receives all resumes in one place and tracks each candidate’s progress through application stages.

                        12. Zoom

                          Probably the most effective method for remaining in touch with all your employees, Zoom has become an office norm for instant communication and connectivity. With its app version available for mobile phones, connectivity has taken a new form by allowing entrepreneurs to schedule and attend important business conference calls on the go.

                          Bottom Line

                          By using these productivity apps, you have a better chance of organizing a systematic approach for performing tasks. There are many entrepreneurs who are striving for success. However, only a few stand apart on the basis of their work ethic and capacity to grow by incorporating smart apps in their routine.

                          Allow yourself a competitive edge by incorporating these handy productivity apps to enhance your company’s growth.

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