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Published on May 20, 2020

What is the Delegation Model and How to Use it?

What is the Delegation Model and How to Use it?

Something as effective as delegation didn’t just come out of nowhere. It wasn’t that one day someone decided to divide their workload among their team and the term delegation was introduced.

Instead, delegation is based on entire delegation models, and these extensive models are backed by thorough research.

These are tried and tested models that, if you understand well, can be used to improve your delegation technique.

What is the Delegation Model?

The delegation model can be divided into two parts.

The first part of the model is another model – the situational leadership model. This is the part that explains which leadership style should be used as per the nature of your followers.

In the second part, the 5 levels of task delegation are explained. This will allow you to assign jobs and follow them up in a way that ensures time efficiency along with quality results.

The Situational Leadership Model

The situational leadership model is quite extensive.[1] It is a guide towards leaders who can choose between the four suggested leadership styles.[2]

4 Leadership Models

The four leadership styles are:

  • Telling
  • Selling
  • Participating
  • Delegating

Telling

A telling leader is someone who communicates the best, although this communication is only one-way.

Such leaders can shout orders all day long. It is for teams whose members have minimal knowledge, expertise, or skill to fulfill the job at hand.

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Selling

The second type of leadership style is selling.

Do your team members question the reasons behind every order? Well, this style is perfect for you.

You will be selling the task to your team. Selling leaders have to do a lot of explaining so that every team member can get a clear idea of what’s in the leader’s mind.

Participating

Participating leaders maintain authority but, at the same time, let their subordinates make their own decisions. This is ideal for teams where the workers are highly capable of doing the project.

The leader can assist the decision-making for the team members to ensure a smooth workflow.

Delegating

Lastly, there’s delegating leaders. They fully put the task in the hands of their subordinates based on whatever delegation models they prefer. However, they continue to facilitate the process.

Delegating leaders generally take on the role of the other three types of leaders as well. They have to sell the task to certain subordinates, tell to a few, and adopt the participating style for the rest.

Follow Your Followers

As per the situational leadership model, a leader has to adopt a style according to the nature of the team. Unlike other leadership models, this one suggests that you take into account your team and make decisions accordingly.

You might be an amazing seller but that does not guarantee success as a selling leader. However, if your team is easily influenced, it allows you to put your persuasion skills to use.

This strategy increases the chances of acceptance and success as a leader. It isn’t easy. But, it is highly useful, specifically for delegating leaders.

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As leaders, you have the authority to test the skills of your team members.

Now, there are various ways to figure this out. You can observe the behavior of each individual while performing a task, you can learn this as time goes by or you can schedule regular surveys to get this information.

Based on what information you receive, you’ll notice that there are four types of individuals.

The first type is those who have the skill and will power to do whatever they are assigned. Secondly, there are team members who are capable yet they lack motivation. Similarly, the third type of individuals are not skilled but they are highly inspired. Lastly, some team members will neither have the skill not the will power to do what’s assigned.

Task Delegation

If your team is a mix of the four types of workers, which is mostly the case, then delegation will work perfectly.

The second part of delegation gives you the autonomy to vary your leadership style from person to person.

Yes, you still have one leadership style overall. But as for individual delegated tasks, you can adopt different techniques to make sure that everyone works to the best of their ability.

For example, for a team member who is skilled yet lacks the motivation to do the job, you can become a telling leader. A strict order may be the push they need to put their abilities to use.

You can also adopt the participating technique. With a lot of the decision power in their hand, they might feel responsible and that can trigger their productivity.

5 Levels of Delegation

To implement these leadership styles, the delegation model suggests 5 levels of task assignment.

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Beginning from level 5, it is where maximum independence is given to the subordinates. The leader has the mindset that the subordinate will fulfill the assigned task and submit it whenever needed.

Level 1 is the complete opposite. It is the other end of the extreme where the leader has to provide maximum possible assistance. The subordinate needs a lot of facilitation to provide quality output.

The rest of the levels between these two extremes are midways. Level 3, for example, is where both the leader and subordinate put in the effort. On level 4, the leader has to offer more than the subordinate, and similarly, level 2 is where the subordinate puts in more than the leader.

None of these levels are strict. The general rule of thumb is to have two extremes on level 1 and 5 and customize the rest as per the need of the situation.

All leaders are given the autonomy to control what is done on each level regarding their team and organization.

Application

All the aforementioned information is applied simultaneously in a real-life situation. There are a lot of tips and tricks for smart delegation, but the most important one is that you use your evaluation and the 5 levels to make the right decision.

There are 3 possible scenarios.

The first one is where you, as the leader, randomly pick and choose who should do what. You assign tasks without weighing the needs of the task with the skills of the individual. As you might have already guessed, this is the worst kind of delegation.

Another situation is where you have put the first part of the delegation model to use. You’ve identified the weak and strong spots of each subordinate. You now have enough knowledge to figure out which part of the project can be done the best by who. So, you delegate authority and tasks based on this knowledge. However, you simply tell each individual to ‘go and do it’.

The last scenario is ideally the best application. Based on the identified skills, the delegator adopts different leadership styles to promote the best performance out of every subordinate.

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Using Delegation Models in Real Life

Let’s assume you’re the leader of a team of 5. Your team is responsible for managing a social media campaign for your organization. You’ll need a writer, social media manager, some sort of graphic expert, data analyst, and a PR person.

You know that among your team of 5, there is enough expertise to do the project. However, this skill isn’t divided equally. So, person A is an expert writer whereas person B can manage social media and also knows enough about PR. On the other hand, person C has all the mathematical skills but is useless for this project.

That’s not all.

You also notice that person A is the most highly motivated. But, for whatever reason, person B seems to be very low. Person C is completely uninterested. Let’s assume person D and person E have a mediocre level of skills and motivation for this project.

In this case, person A is no issue at all. You ‘tell’ them their task and ask them to bring it back on the due date. That’s level 1 of delegation.

For person B, you need to very ‘participating’. You may also need to ‘sell’ the task to increase the inspiration level of this person. You adopt level 4 of delegation so you ask them to consult you a couple of times before the deadline. This way you can keep a close check to make sure that they are working smoothly.

With person D and E, you can go for level 2 or 3. So these individuals continue to work on their own but there can be one meeting before the deadline to check on their progress. Since they aren’t the most skilled for the job, one meeting will be just enough to keep them on track.

Person C is best left out if possible. Otherwise, level 5 delegation can be used. Continuous assistance can help this person learn a new skill and provide something for the project.

Conclusion

Delegation models are highly useful. You can improve the performance of your team immensely by offering customized delegation and leadership.

Apply this model to your leadership from today to get the best out of your subordinates!

More Tips on Delegation

Featured photo credit: Hannah Busing via unsplash.com

Reference

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Leon Ho

Founder & CEO of Lifehack

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Last Updated on June 3, 2020

How to Give Constructive Feedback in the Workplace

How to Give Constructive Feedback in the Workplace

We all crave constructive feedback. We want to know not just what we’re doing well but also what we could be doing better.

However, giving and getting constructive feedback isn’t just some feel-good exercise. In the workplace, it’s part and parcel of how companies grow.

Let’s take a closer look.

Why Constructive Feedback Is Critical

A culture of feedback benefits individuals on a team and the team itself. Constructive feedback has the following effects:

Builds Workers’ Skills

Think about the last time you made a mistake. Did you come away from it feeling attacked—a key marker of destructive feedback—or did you feel like you learned something new?

Every time a team member learns something, they become more valuable to the business. The range of tasks they can tackle increases. Over time, they make fewer mistakes, require less supervision, and become more willing to ask for help.

Boosts Employee Loyalty

Constructive feedback is a two-way street. Employees want to receive it, but they also want the feedback they give to be taken seriously.

If employees see their constructive feedback ignored, they may take it to mean they aren’t a valued part of the team. Nine in ten employees say they’d be more likely to stick with a company that takes and acts on their feedback.[1]

Strengthens Team Bonds

Without trust, teams cannot function. Constructive feedback builds trust because it shows that the giver of the feedback cares about the success of the recipient.

However, for constructive feedback to work its magic, both sides have to assume good intentions. Those giving the feedback must genuinely want to help, and those getting it has to assume that the goal is to build them up rather than to tear them down.

Promotes Mentorship

There’s nothing wrong with a single round of constructive feedback. But when it really makes a difference is when it’s repeated—continuous, constructive feedback is the bread and butter of mentorship.

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Be the change you want to see on your team. Give constructive feedback often and authentically, and others will naturally start to see you as a mentor.

Clearly, constructive feedback is something most teams could use more of. But how do you actually give it?

How to Give Constructive Feedback

Giving constructive feedback is tricky. Get it wrong, and your message might fall on deaf ears. Get it really wrong, and you could sow distrust or create tension across the entire team.

Here are ways to give constructive feedback properly:

1. Listen First

Often, what you perceive as a mistake is a decision someone made for a good reason. Listening is the key to effective communication.

Seek to understand: how did the other person arrive at her choice or action?

You could say:

  • “Help me understand your thought process.”
  • “What led you to take that step?”
  • “What’s your perspective?”

2. Lead With a Compliment

In school, you might have heard it called the “sandwich method”: Before (and ideally, after) giving difficult feedback, share a compliment. That signals to the recipient that you value their work.

You could say:

  • “Great design. Can we see it with a different font?”
  • “Good thinking. What if we tried this?”

3. Address the Wider Team

Sometimes, constructive feedback is best given indirectly. If your comment could benefit others on the team, or if the person whom you’re really speaking to might take it the wrong way, try communicating your feedback in a group setting.

You could say:

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  • “Let’s think through this together.”
  • “I want everyone to see . . .”

4. Ask How You Can Help

When you’re on a team, you’re all in it together. When a mistake happens, you have to realize that everyone—not just the person who made it—has a role in fixing it. Give constructive feedback in a way that recognizes this dynamic.

You could say:

  • “What can I do to support you?”
  • “How can I make your life easier?
  • “Is there something I could do better?”

5. Give Examples

To be useful, constructive feedback needs to be concrete. Illustrate your advice by pointing to an ideal.

What should the end result look like? Who has the process down pat?

You could say:

  • “I wanted to show you . . .”
  • “This is what I’d like yours to look like.”
  • “This is a perfect example.”
  • “My ideal is . . .”

6. Be Empathetic

Even when there’s trust in a team, mistakes can be embarrassing. Lessons can be hard to swallow. Constructive feedback is more likely to be taken to heart when it’s accompanied by empathy.

You could say:

  • “I know it’s hard to hear.”
  • “I understand.”
  • “I’m sorry.”

7. Smile

Management consultancies like Credera teach that communication is a combination of the content, delivery, and presentation.[2] When giving constructive feedback, make sure your body language is as positive as your message. Your smile is one of your best tools for getting constructive feedback to connect.

8. Be Grateful

When you’re frustrated about a mistake, it can be tough to see the silver lining. But you don’t have to look that hard. Every constructive feedback session is a chance for the team to get better and grow closer.

You could say:

  • “I’m glad you brought this up.”
  • “We all learned an important lesson.”
  • “I love improving as a team.”

9. Avoid Accusations

Giving tough feedback without losing your cool is one of the toughest parts of working with others. Great leaders and project managers get upset at the mistake, not the person who made it.[3]

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You could say:

  • “We all make mistakes.”
  • “I know you did your best.”
  • “I don’t hold it against you.”

10. Take Responsibility

More often than not, mistakes are made because of miscommunications Recognize your own role in them.

Could you have been clearer in your directions? Did you set the other person up for success?

You could say:

  • “I should have . . .”
  • “Next time, I’ll . . .”

11. Time it Right

Constructive feedback shouldn’t catch people off guard. Don’t give it while everyone is packing up to leave work. Don’t interrupt a good lunch conversation.

If in doubt, ask the person to whom you’re giving feedback to schedule the session themselves. Encourage them to choose a time when they’ll be able to focus on the conversation rather than their next task.

12. Use Their Name

When you hear your name, your ears naturally perk up. Use that when giving constructive feedback. Just remember that constructive feedback should be personalized, not personal.

You could say:

  • “Bob, I wanted to chat through . . .”
  • “Does that make sense, Jesse?”

13. Suggest, Don’t Order

When you give constructive feedback, it’s important not to be adversarial. The very act of giving feedback recognizes that the person who made the mistake had a choice—and when the situation comes up again, they’ll be able to choose differently.

You could say:

  • “Next time, I suggest . . .”
  • “Try it this way.”
  • “Are you on board with that?”

14. Be Brief

Even when given empathetically, constructive feedback can be uncomfortable to receive. Get your message across, make sure there are no hard feelings, and move on.

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One exception? If the feedback isn’t understood, make clear that you have plenty of time for questions. Rushing through what’s clearly an open conversation is disrespectful and discouraging.

15. Follow Up

Not all lessons are learned immediately. After giving a member of your team constructive feedback, follow it up with an email. Make sure you’re just as respectful and helpful in your written feedback as you are on your verbal communication.

You could say:

  • “I wanted to recap . . .”
  • “Thanks for chatting with me about . . .”
  • “Did that make sense?”

16. Expect Improvement

Although you should always deliver constructive feedback in a supportive manner, you should also expect to see it implemented. If it’s a long-term issue, set milestones.

By what date would you like to see what sort of improvement? How will you measure that improvement?

You could say:

  • “I’d like to see you . . .”
  • “Let’s check back in after . . .”
  • “I’m expecting you to . . .”
  • “Let’s make a dent in that by . . .”

17. Give Second Chances

Giving feedback, no matter how constructive, is a waste of time if you don’t provide an opportunity to implement it. Don’t set up a “gotcha” moment, but do tap the recipient of your feedback next time a similar task comes up.

You could say:

  • “I know you’ll rock it next time.”
  • “I’d love to see you try again.”
  • “Let’s give it another go.”

Final Thoughts

Constructive feedback is not an easy nut to crack. If you don’t give it well, then maybe it’s time to get some. Never be afraid to ask.

More on Constructive Feedback

Featured photo credit: Christina @ wocintechchat.com via unsplash.com

Reference

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