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Last Updated on January 27, 2021

5 Steps (And 4 Techniques) for Effective Problem Solving

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5 Steps (And 4 Techniques) for Effective Problem Solving

Problem solving is the process of reviewing every element of an issue so you can get to a solution or fix it. Problem solving steps cover multiple aspects of a problem that you can bring together to find a solution. Whether that’s in a group collaboratively or independently, the process remains the same, but the approach and the steps can differ.

To find a problem solving approach that works for you, your team, or your company, you have to take into consideration the environment you’re in and the personalities around you.

Knowing the characters in the room will help you decide on the best approach to try and ultimately get to the best solution.

5 Problem Solving Steps

No matter what the problem is, to solve it, you nearly always have to follow these problem solving steps. Missing any of these steps can cause the problem to either resurface or the solution to not be implemented correctly.

Once you know these steps, you can then get creative with the approach you take to find the solutions you need.

1. Define the Problem

You must define and understand the problem before you start, whether you’re solving it independently or as a group. If you don’t have a single view of what the problem is, you could be fixing something that doesn’t need fixing, or you’ll fix the wrong problem.

Spend time elaborating on the problem, write it down, and discuss everything, so you’re clear on why the problem is occurring and who it is impacting.

2. Ideate

Once you have clarity on the problem, you then need to start thinking about every possible solution. This is where you go big and broad, as you want to come up with as many alternative solutions as possible.Don’t just take the first idea; build out as many as you can through active listening, as the more you create, the more likely you’ll find a solution that has the best impact on the team.

3. Decide on a Solution

Whichever solution you pick individually or as a team, make sure you think about the impact on others if you implement this solution. Ask questions like:

  • How will they react to this change?
  • Will they need to change anything?
  • Who do we need to inform of this change?

4. Implement the Solution

At this stage of problem solving, be prepared for feedback, and plan for this. When you roll out the solution, request feedback on the success of the change made.

5. Review, Iterate, and Improve

Making a change shouldn’t be a one time action. Spend time reviewing the results of the change to make sure it’s made the required impact and met the desired outcomes.

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Make changes where needed so you can further improve the solution implemented.

4 Techniques to Encourage Problem Solving

Each individual or team is going to have different needs and may need a different technique to encourage each of the problem solving steps. Try one of these to stimulate the process.

1-2-4 All Approach + Voting

The 1-2-4-All is a good problem solving approach that can work no matter how large the group is. Everyone is involved, and you can generate a vast amount of ideas quickly.

Ideas and solutions are discussed and organized rapidly, and what is great about this approach is the attendees own their ideas, so when it comes to implementing the solutions, you don’t have more work to gain buy-in.

As a facilitator, you first need to present the group with a question explaining the problem or situation. For example, “What actions or ideas would you recommend to solve the company’s lack of quiet working areas?”

1

With the question clear for all to see, the group then spends 5 minutes to reflect on the question individually. They can jot down their thoughts and ideas on Post-Its.

2

Now ask the participants to find one or two other people to discuss their ideas and thoughts with. Ask the group to move around to find a partner so they can mix with new people.

Ask the pairs to spend 5 minutes discussing their shared ideas and thoughts.

4

Next, put the group into groups of two or three pairs to make groups of 4-6. Each group shouldn’t be larger than six as the chances of everyone being able to speak reduces.

Ask the group to discuss one interesting idea they’ve heard in previous rounds, and each group member shares one each.

The group then needs to pick their preferred solution to the problem. This doesn’t have to be voted on, just one that resonated most with the group.

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Then ask for three actions that could be taken to implement this change.

All

Bring everyone back together as a group and ask open questions like “What is the one thing you discussed that stood out for you?” or “Is there something you now see differently following these discussions?”

By the end of the session, you’ll have multiple approaches to solve the problem, and the whole group will have contributed to the future solutions and improvements.

The Lightning Decision Jam

The Lightning Decision Jam is a great way to solve problems collaboratively and agree on one solution or experiment you want to try straight away. It encourages team decision making, but at the same time, the individual can get their ideas and feedback across.[1]

If, as a team, you have a particular area you want to improve upon, like the office environment, for example, this approach is perfect to incorporate in the problem solving steps.

The approach follows a simple loop.

Make a Note – Stick It on The Wall – Vote – Prioritize

Using sticky notes, the technique identifies major problems, encourages solutions, and opens the group up for discussion. It allows each team member to play an active role in identifying both problems and ways to solve them.

Mind Mapping

Mind mapping is a fantastic visual thinking tool that allows you to bring problems to life by building out the connections and visualizing the relationships that make up the problem.

You can use a mind map to quickly expand upon the problem and give yourself the full picture of the causes of the problem, as well as solutions[2].

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Problem Solving with Mind Maps (Tutorial) - Focus

    The goal of a mind map is to simplify the problem and link the causes and solutions to the problem.

    To create a mind map, you must first create the central topic (level 1). In this case, that’s the problem.

    Next, create the linked topics (level 2) that you place around and connect to the main central topic with a simple line.

    If the central topic is “The client is always changing their mind at the last minute,” then you could have linked topics like:

    • How often does this happen?
    • Why are they doing this?
    • What are they asking for?
    • How do they ask for it?
    • What impact does this have?

    Adding these linking topics allows you to start building out the main causes of the problem as you can begin to see the full picture of what you need to fix. Once you’re happy that you’ve covered the breadth of the problem and its issues, you can start to ideate on how you’re going to fix it with the problem solving steps.

    Now, start adding subtopics (level 3) linking to each of the level 2 topics. This is where you can start to go big on solutions and ideas to help fix the problem.

    For each of the linked topics (level 2), start to think about how you can prevent them, mitigate them, or improve them. As this is just ideas on paper, write down anything that comes to mind, even if you think the client will never agree to it!

    The more you write down, the more ideas you’ll have until you find one or two that could solve the main problem.

    Once you run out of ideas, take a step back and highlight your favorite solutions to take forward and implement.

    The 5 Why’s

    The five why’s can sound a little controversial, and you shouldn’t try this without prepping the team beforehand.

    Asking “why” is a great way to go deep into the root of the problem to make the individual or team really think about the cause. When a problem arises, we often have preconceived ideas about why this problem has occurred, which is usually based on our experiences or beliefs.

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    Start with describing the problem, and then the facilitator can ask “Why?” fives time or more until you get to the root of the problem. It’s tough at first to keep being asked why, but it’s also satisfying when you get to the root of the problem[3].

    The 5 Whys

      As a facilitator, although the basic approach is to ask why, you need to be careful not to guide the participant down a single route.

      To help with this, you can use a mind map with the problem at the center. Then ask a why question that will result in multiple secondary topics around the central problem. Having this visual representation of the problem helps you build out more useful why questions around it.

      Once you get to the root of the problem, don’t forget to be clear in the actions to put a fix in place to resolve it.

      Learn more about how to use the five why’s here.

      The Bottom Line

      To fix a problem, you must first be in a position where you fully understand it. There are many ways to misinterpret a problem, and the best way to understand them is through conversation with the team or individuals who are experiencing it.

      Once you’re aligned, you can then begin to work on the solutions that will have the greatest impact through effective problem solving steps.

      For the more significant or difficult problems to solve, it’s often advisable to break the solution up into smaller actions or improvements.

      Trial these improvements in short iterations, and then continue the conversations to review and improve the solution. Implementing all of these steps will help you root out the problems and find useful solutions each time.

      More Tips on Problem Solving

      Featured photo credit: You X Ventures via unsplash.com

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      Reference

      More by this author

      Ben Willmott

      Productivity and Project Management blogger for at work and at home

      Can’t Focus? Find Out Why and How to Fix It How to Set OKRs to Keep Your Goals on Track How to Compartmentalize to Live a Stress-Free and Successful Life 5 Steps (And 4 Techniques) for Effective Problem Solving 8 Essential Project Management Skills for Productive Work

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      Published on August 9, 2021

      12 Best Brain Foods To Help You Focus Like A Laser

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      12 Best Brain Foods To Help You Focus Like A Laser

      Do you ever feel like your brain can function better than it is currently? Have you ever had moments of laser sharp focus and wished they stayed with you forever?

      We have all had those moments where we found ourselves being super productive and having lengthened periods of concentration and focused attention, and if there was a way we could make such kind of mental state a permanent state for us, we would definitely go for it.

      And while we cannot make the state come back and stick with us forever in just an instant, there is a way we can slowly cultivate it in our lives in the long term.

      One of these ways is by being keen on eating brain boosting foods. Some foods enhance the regions of the brain that are linked to concentration, focus, reasoning, thinking abilities, and overall brain health. By eating these foods regularly, you can also improve your brain function and slowly work to a healthy and well performing brain.

      Let’s take a closer look at the 12 best brain foods to take to boost your focus and overall mental health.

      1. Coffee

      Coffee is among the most popular beverages that sharpen your focus and increase productivity. Millions of people across the world rely on it to help them through demanding tasks at work and assignments at school.

      The reason why coffee has proven to be effective over the years is due to the two components in it that largely enhance the brain.

      These components are antioxidants and caffeine.

      Antioxidants help with protecting the brain from common mental health conditions such as stroke, Parkinson’s disease, cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease.[1][2]

      Caffeine, on the other hand, is responsible for influencing the brain in various positive ways including blocking out a brain chemical called Adenosine that makes you want to sleep and increasing the levels of serotonin neurotransmitters which in turn boosts your mood, increase your level of alertness and concentration.[3][4][5][6]

      However, it is important to note that taking coffee with moderation is the way to make the most of it. If you take more than 4 cups a day, you might be setting yourself up for the nasty side effects that come with it which are restlessness and inability to sleep.[7]

      Striking a good balance between coffee and other beverages will help you avoid the chances of experiencing the side effects. You can try drinking coffee only on those days you want to tackle tedious tasks, and only when you are working on them to maximize its effects in your life.

      2. Fatty Fish

      When the words fatty fish are mentioned, you naturally direct your attention to salmon, pollack, cod, sardines, mackerel and tuna.

      These contain omega 3 fatty acids, which are known to help with improving learning abilities and memory, not to mention helping with building nerve and brain cells.[8][9][10][11]

      Improved cognitive performance brought about by omega 3 fatty acids can be attributed to the fact that they help increase flow of blood in the brain. [12]

      Also, when it comes to general mental health, eating oily or fatty fish helps to delay the mental decline that comes with age, as well as depression and reduce learning problems. [13] [14]

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      Omega 3 has also been associated with the lowering of the protein called Beta-amyloid in the brain that is responsible for forming destructive clamps in people who struggle with Alzheimer’s.[15]

      You are encouraged to add fatty fish to your eating plan and consider having it often.

      Also, if you would like to obtain omega 3 fatty acids without having to feel like you have to eat fish every time, you can use other alternatives such as walnuts, flaxseeds and avocados. They are also good sources of omega 3.

      3. Maca

      Maca is a plant from Peru that is grown in Central Andes and has been cultivated a little over 2000 years now. Its scientific name is Lepidium meyenii and is used as a foodstuff as well as a medicinal plant.

      It is said to bring about many health benefits including boosting learning abilities and memory, improving mood, increasing energy levels and endurance, improving sexual health in men, and regulating blood pressure.[16]

      When it comes to the mental health benefits, Peruvian natives in the Central Andes attribute their children’s good academic performance to regular use of maca.[17]

      While there are different varieties of maca, studies have found that the black variety is the one that shows strong effects on mental health improvement, and both hydroalcoholic maca extract and boiled aqueous maca extract have the same effect on the brain.[18]

      Scientific studies on maca are still in their infancy and the cause of the effects that it has shown are not yet fully established. However, it is suggested that Macamides, which are maca compounds, might be behind its potency.[19]

      You can add maca to your smoothies, energy bars, oatmeal, and any baked foods to enjoy its benefits.

      4. Green Tea

      Green tea is another known stimulant that helps you remain alert. It contains two compounds that go a long way in influencing the brain.[20]

      First, it contains caffeine which accounts for the alertness.

      Although coffee contains a much higher quantity of caffeine than green tea, the latter is found suitable to use for those who prefer a well toned effect of caffeine.

      Caffeine helps with regulating neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, dopamine and adenosine, as earlier mentioned, that helps with keeping you awake and in good balance in terms of moods and brain function.[21][22]

      Second, it contains. L-theanine.

      L-theanine is an amino acid that can cross the blood-brain barrier and into the brain which then promotes increase in GABA (Gamma aminobutyric acid) which promotes relaxation.[23][24][25]

      It also increases the alpha waves in the brain which are responsible for the calm, conscious and relaxed mental state.

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      When L-theanine and caffeine are combined, they both have a much powerful effect, and this explains why taking green tea for many people has been found more rewarding than coffee.

      L-theanine has also been linked to other mental health benefits such as improving memory and protection from mental illnesses like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.[26][27]

      Taking green tea in the morning and just before going for a physical exercise helps.

      5. Green Leafy Vegetables

      Greens are packed with nutrients that enhance the brain in great ways. Broccoli, Swiss chards, kales, dandelion greens, collards and spinach are among the vegetables that have high nutritional value that make them useful for brain health.

      Broccoli, for instance, has antioxidants and Vitamin K, among other plant compounds that contribute to better memory, anti-inflammatory effects and brain protection benefits.[28][29][30]

      Kale is heavily packed with nutrients like Vitamin A, B6, C, K, potassium, manganese, copper and calcium that promote brain development, slowing cognitive decline caused by age, depression and even various health conditions like Alzheimer’s.[31][32][33][34]

      Generally, leafy vegetables contain a variety of nutrients including vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that elevate various regions of the brain that are associated with memory, alertness, processing of information and overall brain health.

      Working with delicious green smoothies and recipes that use a lot of greens will largely contribute to a better functioning brain.

      6. Dark Chocolate

      Other than the sweet taste, dark chocolate also boosts your brain.

      It contains three compounds that make this possible, which are, caffeine, antioxidants and flavonoids.

      Since we have already seen that caffeine offers the stimulating effects that keep you alert and antioxidants help with keeping mental illnesses and cognitive decline at bay, let’s take a closer look at flavonoids.

      Flavonoids are micronutrients that reduce neuroinflammation, protect neurons from neurotoxin-based injury and are potentially effective in enhancing learning, cognitive performance and memory.[35][36] [37]

      Studies have also revealed that dark chocolate brings about a positive feeling.[38]

      Dark chocolate contains cacao, which is often referred to as cocoa. Aiming to eat dark chocolate that carries more than 70% cocoa ensures that you get optimal benefits from it.

      7. Nuts

      Nuts such as walnuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, pecans, to name a few, contain several brain improving nutrients.

      They come with the popular antioxidant, Vitamin E, that protects the brain cells and cell membranes from oxidative stress and damage by free radicals.[39][40][41]

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      Long term consumption of nuts has contributed to a sharper memory, better academic performance and lower risks of getting mental illnesses too.[42][43]

      They have also shown abilities to improve the factors that account for good heart and brain health.

      All nuts have their nutritional benefits but you are encouraged to eat walnuts more as they have a much higher value due to the presence of high levels of alpha-linolenic acid, which is a type of omega 3 fatty acid.

      8. Avocado

      Avocado is surprisingly a berry, and it is referred to as a big berry.

      Although it hasn’t been fully studied yet, it is believed to carry vitamins B5, B6, C, E and K. Also, it comes with folate and potassium.

      There are also low amounts of other nutrients including copper, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, and iron that are present in it.

      Moreover, it contains a monounsaturated fatty acid called Oleic acid, which is part of what makes olive oil good to use. This fatty acid is known to have many benefits, some of which are lowering inflammation, and brain development.[44]

      Adding it to your recipes or making smoothies, and regularly eating it together with your favorite fruits will help you take advantage of its nutritional value.

      9. Eggs

      There are 4 micronutrients in eggs that give the brain an extra edge, folate, choline, vitamin B6 and B12.

      Folate helps to slow down the mental decline that comes with age.[45]

      Choline is used by the body to increases the levels of a neurotransmitter known as Acetylcholine that is associated with memory, mental function and moods.[46][47][48]

      The yolk of an egg is where the choline micronutrient is in high quantities, and people who desire to increase their choline levels in the body are encouraged to focus on that part.

      Vitamin B6 brings down the high levels of an amino acid called Homocysteine in the blood that causes depression and other psychiatric issues.

      It also plays the role of increasing the levels of neurotransmitters like GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid), serotonin and dopamine, which modulate emotions.

      Vitamin B12 also helps with reducing the symptoms of depression as well as preventing losing neurons that in turn cause poor memory.[49]

      10. Citrus Fruits

      Citrus fruits are categorized into lemons (which include meyer lemons and eureka lemons), sweet oranges (which include blood orange, Valencia, cara cara and navel), limes (which include kaffir, Persian and key lime), mandarin (which include tangelo, tangor, satsuma and clementine), grapefruit (which include ruby red, white and oroblanco) and others such as yuzu, sudachi, citron and pomelos.

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      They have the B vitamins as well as Vitamin C, copper, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium. There are also lots of varieties of carotenoids, essential oils and flavonoids present in citrus fruits.

      On top of that, they are also known to possess antioxidating and anti-inflammatory effects.

      Vitamin C reduces inflammation, offers protection to neurons from oxidative stress, modulates neurotransmission (communication between neurons), and also influences neuronal development.[50]

      Some of the minerals in citrus fruits have been found to reduce symptoms of depression in women.[51]

      They have also been associated with influencing communication through the nerves and regulating neurotransmitters.[52]

      The flavanoids protect the nervous system from damage through the anti-inflammatory effects they have. And this helps to keep mental health conditions like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s away.[53][54]

      11. Turmeric

      Turmeric is a spice we add to our foods to make it delicious that also does a bit of magic to our brains.

      Curcumin is a primary active component in turmeric that easily passes the blood brain barrier.

      It brings about anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that drag along the benefits of improved memory, promoting growth of new brain cells and managing moods.[55][56]

      Also, it has shown potential to handle Alzheimer’s diseases, although it has not been fully confirmed as reliable treatment.[57][58]

      12. Beetroots

      Beetroots which are commonly referred to as beets are also great brain enhancers.

      They can help prevent mental decline that is associated with poor blood flow to the brain. They have nitrates that encourage blood vessel dilation that then allow more blood and oxygen to flow to the brain, and thus enhance its functions.[59]

      More specifically, they improve flow of blood to a part of the brain known as the frontal lobe.

      This is a region that is linked to higher cognitive functions including concentration and attention, problem solving, reasoning and judgment, motor function, impulse control, memory, social interaction and emotions.

      Conclusion

      There you go, the best brain foods that you should make your closest friends.

      You should aim to have them often if you would like to see an improvement in your brain function in the coming months. Looking for recipes that use the foods mentioned above as ingredients and adding them to your recipe book is a good place to start.

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      Also, mixing them up with the foods you like eating goes a long way in not only making sure that you are minding your brain health but also enjoying what you eat in the process.

      Featured photo credit: Maddi Bazzocco via unsplash.com

      Reference

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      [2] US National Library of Medicine: Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Properties of a Coffee Component in the MPTP Model of Parkinson’s Disease
      [3] PubMed.gov: Effects of caffeine on mood and performance: a study of realistic consumption
      [4] PubMed.gov: Caffeine and adenosine
      [5] PubMed.gov: The role of adenosine in the regulation of sleep
      [6] PubMed.gov: Roles of adenosine and its receptors in sleep-wake regulation
      [7] US National Library of Medicine: The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review
      [8] National Center For Complimentary And Integrative Health: Omega-3 Supplements: In Depth
      [9] PubMed.gov: Omega-3 Fatty Acids and their Role in Central Nervous System – A Review
      [10] National Library of Medicine: A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids
      [11] PubMed.gov: Novel insights into the effect of vitamin B₁₂ and omega-3 fatty acids on brain function
      [12] PubMed.gov: Quantitative Erythrocyte Omega-3 EPA Plus DHA Levels are Related to Higher Regional Cerebral Blood Flow on Brain SPECT
      [13] PubMed.gov: Omega-3 fatty acids and dementia
      [14] PubMed.gov: Fish consumption and cognitive decline with age in a large community study
      [15] Harvard Medical School: Foods linked to better brainpower
      [16] US National Library of Medicine: Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
      [17] PubMed.gov: Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands
      [18] PubMed.gov: Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice
      [19] US National Library of Medicine: Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands
      [20] PubMed.gov: Effect of Green Tea Phytochemicals on Mood and Cognition
      [21] Wiley Online Library: Adenosine, Adenosine Receptors and the Actions of Caffeine
      [22] PubMed.gov: Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects
      [23] PubMed.gov: The neuropharmacology of L-theanine(N-ethyl-L-glutamine): a possible neuroprotective and cognitive enhancing agent
      [24] ScienceDirect: L-theanine—a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans
      [25] PubMed.gov: L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state
      [26] PubMed.gov: Green tea extract enhances parieto-frontal connectivity during working memory processing
      [27] PubMed.gov: Neurological mechanisms of green tea polyphenols in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases
      [28] PubMed.gov: Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults
      [29] Increased dietary vitamin K intake is associated with less severe subjective memory complaint among older adults
      [30] US National Library of Medicine: Assessing Competence of Broccoli Consumption on Inflammatory and Antioxidant Pathways in Restraint-Induced Models: Estimation in Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex
      [31] ScienceDaily: B vitamins and the aging brain examined
      [32] PubMed.gov: The Importance of Maternal Folate Status for Brain Development and Function of Offspring
      [33] PubMed.gov: Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12
      [34] PNAS: Preventing Alzheimer’s disease-related gray matter atrophy by B-vitamin treatment
      [35] US National Library of Medicine: Flavonoids and brain health: multiple effects underpinned by common mechanisms
      [36] Harvard Medical School: The thinking on flavonoids
      [37] PubMed.gov: Epicatechin, a component of dark chocolate, enhances memory formation if applied during the memory consolidation period
      [38] PubMed.gov: The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood
      [39] PubMed.gov: Effects of vitamin E on cognitive performance during ageing and in Alzheimer’s disease
      [40] PubMed.gov: The effect of adrenaline and of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blocking agents on ATP concentration and on incorporation of 32Pi into ATP in rat fat cells
      [41] PubMed.gov: Vitamin E-gene interactions in aging and inflammatory age-related diseases: implications for treatment. A systematic review
      [42] US National Library of Medicine: LONG-TERM INTAKE OF NUTS IN RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDER WOMEN
      [43] PubMed.gov: Cognition: the new frontier for nuts and berries
      [44] US National Library of Medicine: Neuroprotective effects of oleic acid in rodent models of cerebral ischaemia
      [45] US National Library of Medicine: Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function
      [46] PubMed.gov: Choline: an essential nutrient for public health
      [47] Pubmed.govThe relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort
      [48] NCBI: Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline
      [49] PubMed.gov: Vitamin B-12 concentration, memory performance, and hippocampal structure in patients with mild cognitive impairment
      [50] PubMed.gov: Preventive and Therapeutic Potential of Vitamin C in Mental Disorders
      [51] NCBI: Association between Lower Intake of Minerals and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly Japanese Women but Not Men: Findings from Shika Study
      [52] Harvard Medical School: Precious metals and other important minerals for health
      [53] PubMed.gov: Role of Quercetin Benefits in Neurodegeneration
      [54] PubMed.gov: Neurodegenerative Diseases: Might Citrus Flavonoids Play a Protective Role?
      [55] PubMed.gov: Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial
      [56] PLOS ONE: Curcumin Enhances Neurogenesis and Cognition in Aged Rats: Implications for Transcriptional Interactions Related to Growth and Synaptic Plasticity
      [57] US National Library of Medicine: The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer’s disease: An overview
      [58] NCBI: The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer’s disease: An overview
      [59] NCBI: The Potential Benefits of Red Beetroot Supplementation in Health and Disease

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