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Should You (or Should You Not) Be Working Out on an Empty Stomach?

Should You (or Should You Not) Be Working Out on an Empty Stomach?

As the amount of fitness information available is getting bigger, the chances of being exposed to bad advice are also growing, creating more fitness myths than ever. Yet, one of the most debatable myths that has been out there forever is the myth of working out on an empty stomach.

It has been a prevailing thought for decades that you shouldn’t eat or drink prior to working out, and it seems that only recently the public has started questioning its accuracy.

“Fasted” versus “Fed”

The common belief of the effectiveness of the “hungry workout” isn’t unsupported; actual research backs it up. The British Journal of Nutrition[1] and the International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism both published studies that show data in favor of “fasted” as opposed to “fed” training when it comes to the percentage of fat lost per workout.[2]

Additionally, a study published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology shows that fasted training provides a better anabolic post workout response to weight training, meaning it provides a better environment for building lean mass.

Namely, the conclusions indicate that “prior fasting may stimulate the intramyocellular [stored fats] anabolic response to ingestion of a carbohydrate/protein/leucine mixture following a heavy resistance training session.”[3]

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Moreover, by providing better absorption of the post workout meal nutrients, fasted training has the great potential to improve insulin sensitivity, and is, therefore, an important agent in the fat loss process.

As insulin sensitivity shows how easily fat and muscle cells in our body take in glucose, regulating insulin sensitivity helps lower the blood sugar levels, which is one of the most important factors in weigh loss. The Journal of Physiology published a study[4] that shows significantly greater insulin sensitivity improvement for the fasted training group as opposed to fed training group.

Finally, fasted training proved beneficial to endurance performance. In a study[5] published in the Journal of Strength and Conditional Research, ten professional cyclists maintained lean mass, lowered fat mass, and maintained performance.

Why fed training is better?

However, there is another side to the story that trumps the beliefs of efficacy of fasted workouts. As sports dietetics specialist Kelly Pritchett, Ph.D., R.D. explains, while the body’s response to a high-intensity fasted workout is to burn glycogen, the stored up carbohydrates, eventually, the body starts to adjust to the new system and starts storing fat from the next meal and burning less calories in order to compensate.[6]

Additionally, a study[7] published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition shows no benefits of fasting, since longer periods of avoiding food showed a decrease in resting metabolic rates (calories burned per unit of time, a day usually.)

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What’s more, fed training actually helps reduce appetite later in the day, as a study[8] in the journal Appetite shows. Whereas both fed and fasted training participants were expanding the same amount of energy throughout the day, the fed training participants experienced lessened appetite later on, which means less snacking or overeating later in the day, which is great news for anyone who wants to lose weight.

Although it may seem (according to scientific data) that fasted exercise provides better results, later and more extensive research shows the opposite is true.

As far as the fat burning capacity of fasted training is concerned, while it is accurate to some point, on the other hand it is proven to be counterproductive.

Namely, throughout the course of a high-intensity fasted workout, having no more fat to burn, the body starts to burn muscle instead. As another study[9] published in the European Journal of Physiology shows, during high-intensity training, without prior eating, the body relies on burning muscle proteins for energy, which is certainly an unwanted scenario for both professional athletes, and people who are just trying to shed some weight and feel better.

Another important benefit of fed training is that it gives you the ability to improve at a steady rate, which is impossible to achieve through a fasted workout regimen, as a study[10] from the Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport shows. Being able to push yourself a little bit further each time, and outperform your previous training, isn’t feasible with fasted training since your body lacks the energy to rely on for additional strength. By eating a light meal before your workout, your body will be provided with enough energy to help you perform a little better each time.

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As the study concludes, “meal ingestion prior to daily exercise can modify some of the exercise training-induced adaptations normally seen with endurance training compared to when daily exercise is undertaken in the overnight-fasted state.”

How Fed training affects fat loss

When it comes to burning fat, the results are more favorable for the fed training method. As another study[11] in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism shows, physical activity after a light meal is far more effective for fat loss.

The study analyzed the effect on oxygen consumption (VO2) and substrate utilization (how our bodies burn fats and carbs), estimated by the respiratory-exchange ratio (RER) in eight young healthy men who were exposed to the same moderate-intensity workout. The results showed that breakfast increased both VO2 and RER significantly, and more importantly, the difference was still significant 24 hours after exercise. This means that fed training increases lipid utilization (the breaking down of fat cells), which is essential for weight loss.

Another study[12] in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition has managed to completely refute the belief that fat loss is much faster throughout fasting training, as the results showed no significant difference in weight loss between women who ate a meal-replacement shake before working out and those who performed training without any meal.

Conclusions

All research considered, a fed workout actually has more scientifically proven benefits to overall health, fitness, weight loss, and workout performance, as opposed to fasted training. It may seem like fasted training aids in body fat loss, but in the long run, it actually has counterproductive effects, as the body starts to store fat and burn less calories as a precaution.

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Additionally, the studies show far greater and longer effects on burning body fat with fed training than those of a fasted. Moreover, the decreased appetite shown in groups who performed fed training is another reason for people who want to shed some weight to enjoy a light meal before a workout in order to prevent later cravings.

Finally, for reaching new higher goals in fitness and training, a fed workout is again a much more productive option, since the calories provide enough energy for extra effort.

Featured photo credit: Pixabay via pixabay.com

Reference

[1] The British Journal of Nutrition: Breakfast and exercise contingently affect postprandial metabolism and energy balance in physically active males
[2] The International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism: Effects of fed- versus fasted-state aerobic training during Ramadan on body composition and some metabolic parameters in physically active men
[3] European Journal of Applied Physiology: Increased p70s6k phosphorylation during intake of a protein–carbohydrate drink following resistance exercise in the fasted state
[4] Journal of Physiology: Training in the fasted state improves glucose tolerance during fat-rich diet
[5] Journal of Strength and Conditional Research: Effects of caloric restriction and overnight fasting on cycling endurance performance
[6] DailyBurn: Intermittent Fasting: Should You Exercise on Empty?
[7] American Journal of Clinical Nutrition: Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism
[8] Appetite: Appetite, energy intake and resting metabolic responses to 60 min treadmill running performed in a fasted versus a postprandial state
[9] European Journal of Physiology: Training in the fasted state facilitates re-activation of eEF2 activity during recovery from endurance exercise
[10] Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport: Adaptations to skeletal muscle with endurance exercise training in the acutely fed versus overnight-fasted state
[11] International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism: Exercising fasting or fed to enhance fat loss? Influence of food intake on respiratory ratio and excess postexercise oxygen consumption after a bout of endurance training
[12] Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition: Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise

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Last Updated on July 10, 2020

How to Take Control of Your Life with Better Boundaries

How to Take Control of Your Life with Better Boundaries

We all have them—those hurtful, frustrating, offensive, manipulative people in our lives. No matter how hard we try to surround ourselves with positive and kind people, there will always be those who will disrespect, insult, berate, and misuse you if we allow them to.

We may, for a variety of reasons, not be able to avoid them, but we can determine how we interact with them and how we allow them to interact with us.

So, how to take control of your life and stop being pushed around?

Learning to set clear firm boundaries with the people in our lives at work and in our personal lives is the best way to protect ourselves from the negative effects of this kind of behavior.

What Boundaries Are (And What They’re Not)

Boundaries are limits

—they are not threats or ultimatums. Boundaries inform or teach. They are not a form of punishment.

Boundaries are firm lines—determined by you—which cannot be crossed by those around you. They are guidelines for how you will allow others to treat you and what kind of behaviors you will expect.

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Healthy personal boundaries help protect you from physical or emotional pain. You may also need to set firm boundaries at work to ensure you and your time are not disrespected. Don’t allow others to take advantage of your kindness and generosity.

Clear boundaries communicate to others that you demand respect and consideration—that you are willing to stand up for yourself and that you will not be a doormat for anyone. They are a “no trespassing” sign that makes it very clear when a line has been crossed and that there will be consequences for doing so.

Boundaries are not set with the intention of changing other people. They may change how people interact with you, but they are more about enforcing your needs than attempting to change the general behavior and attitude of others.

How to Establish Boundaries and Take Control of Your Life

Here are some ways that you can establish boundaries and take control of your life.

1. Self-Awareness Comes First

Before you can establish boundaries with others, you first need to understand what your needs are.

You are entitled to respect. You have the right to protect yourself from inappropriate or offensive behavior. Setting boundaries is a way of honoring your needs.

To set appropriate boundaries, you need to be clear about what healthy behaviors look like—what healthy relationships look like.

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You first have to become more aware of your feelings and honest with yourself about your expectations and what you feel is appropriate behavior:

  • Where do you need to establish better boundaries?
  • When do you feel disrespected?
  • When do you feel violated, frustrated, or angered by the behavior of others?
  • In what situations do you feel you are being mistreated or taken advantage of?
  • When do you want to be alone?
  • How much space do you need?

You need to honor your own needs and boundaries before you can expect others to honor them. This allows you to take control of your life.

2. Clear Communication Is Essential

Inform others clearly and directly what your expectations are. It is essential to have clear communication if you want others to respect your boundaries. Explain in an honest and respectful tone what you find offensive or unacceptable.

Many people simply aren’t aware that they are behaving inappropriately. They may never have been taught proper manners or consideration for others.

3. Be Specific but Don’t Blame

Taking a blaming or punishing attitude automatically puts people on the defensive. People will not listen when they feel attacked. It’s part of human nature.

That said, you do not need to overexplain or defend yourself. Boundaries are not open to compromise.

Sample language:

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  • “You may not…yell or raise your voice to me…”
  • “I need…to be treated with respect…”
  • “It’s not okay when…you take things from my desk without asking…”
  • “I won’t…do your work…cover for you anymore…”
  • “It’s not acceptable when…you ridicule or insult me…”
  • “I am uncomfortable when…you use offensive language”
  • “I will no longer be able to…lend you money…”

Being able to communicate these without sounding accusatory is essential if you want others to respect your boundaries so you can take control of your life.

4. Consequences Are Often Necessary

Determine what the appropriate consequences will be when boundaries are crossed. If it’s appropriate, be clear about those consequences upfront when communicating those boundaries to others.

Follow through. People won’t respect your boundaries if you don’t enforce them.

Standing our ground and forcing consequences doesn’t come easily to us. We want to be nice. We want people to like us, but we shouldn’t have to trade our self-respect to gain friends or to achieve success.

We may be tempted to let minor disrespect slide to avoid conflict, but as the familiar saying goes, “if you give people an inch, they’ll take a mile.”

It’s much easier to address offensive or inappropriate behavior now than to wait until that behavior has gotten completely out of hand.

It’s also important to remember that positive reinforcement is even more powerful than negative consequences. When people do alter the way they treat you, acknowledge it. Let people know that you notice and appreciate their efforts.

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Final Thoughts

Respect is always a valid reason for setting a boundary. Don’t defend yourself or your needs. Boundaries are often necessary to protect your time, your space, and your feelings. And these are essential if you want to take control of your life.

Start with the easiest boundaries first. Setting boundaries is a skill that needs to be practiced. Enlist support from others if necessary. Inform people immediately when they have crossed the line.

Don’t wait. Communicate politely and directly. Be clear about the consequences and follow them through.

The better you become at setting your own boundaries, the better you become at recognizing and respecting the boundaries of others.

Remember that establishing boundaries is your right. You are entitled to respect. You can’t control how other people behave, but you do have control over the way you allow people to treat you.

Learning to set boundaries is not always easy, but with time, it will become more comfortable. You may eventually find that boundaries become automatic and you no longer need to consciously set them.

They will simply become a natural extension of your self-respect.

Featured photo credit: Thomas Kelley via unsplash.com

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