Our minds are flooded with information on a daily basis. The ability to think critically is crucial for sorting through this and deciding what information is truthful and what is deceitful; what is useful and what is garbage. Critical thinking is the ability to examine and reason through any claims, assertions, premises, and conclusions, and arrive at a decision regarding its truthfulness. Often tied in with formal logic and reasoning, the methodology and process can become very detailed, breaking down syllogisms and arguments into categories of valid, invalid, modus ponens, modus tollens, etc. However, you don’t need to go through a whole course on critical thinking to possess the ability detect fallacies in everyday life. Here are nine practical ways to train your mind to think critically:
1. The Use of Metaphors and Illustrations.
Giving great examples and illustrations is a powerful way to sway someone, even when the illustration has nothing to do with the point in question. For example, using the metaphor of, “A seed needs to die in order for new life to come,” to argue for inhabiting protected land may sound good, but the illustration does not correspond to the desired means or end.
2. The False Dilemma.
This is a classic fallacy that finds its way into many conversations and discussions. It involves narrowing down the possible conclusion to any argument to an either/or form. Of course, the reality is that there may be multiple conclusions available. Next time you are pressured into choosing between two options, choose both—and then throw in a few more possibilities to bend their cookie cutter.
3. Motives and Biases.
In any dialogue, be sure to consider which angle the person presenting the argument is coming from. Almost always, they have a position that they are trying to prove and will bend all information toward supporting their agenda. Mentally acknowledging this to yourself will allow you to filter out any statements that simply serve to support their point.
4. Personal Pride.
Step back from the need to be right. This can be very crippling for clear and critical thinking. A one-sided perspective will always search for information that bolsters your views and you become blind to what is really true or useful. Instead of wanting to be right, shift your mindset to wanting to understand more.
5. Question the Source.
Do not be fooled when people use phrases such as, “Doctor so and so says…,” or, “Experts tell us…” It should not be a surprise that even people with PhDs can be very illogical. Check the source. Then ask about the credibility of that source: Are they a respected person in their particular field? Has their research proven to be accurate?
It is very easy to go down a rabbit hole and get completely off topic from the original point of the conversation. This happens the longer a conversation progresses. Place a mental marker in your mind about what the initial point of the conversation was—have this as the anchor to keep from getting off track. Continue to string together the conversation mentally in your mind to keep from going off on tangents.
7. Time Out.
Cognitive scientists will explain that the brain typically holds between five to seven pieces of information at a time. Confusion happens when your mind has to start juggling too many pieces of information. Rather than having to come up with an answer or a conclusion, it is absolutely okay to say, “I don’t know,” or, “I need more time to think about that.” Give your mind a little more time to sort through what it has just heard and piece things together.
8. Play the Devil’s Advocate
Before becoming dogmatic on any of your own beliefs, it is helpful to reason and argue with yourself. Take the oppositional view to your own beliefs and see whether your position would stand up against your own barrage of attacks.
9. Beware the Straw Man
A straw man is a fallacy that pops up a tremendous amount in monologues, such as in political speeches, for example. It involves taking an argument and erroneously rephrasing it or tweaking so that it easily torn apart by the person making the argument. This can also happen in general conversations when people take what you say and twist it. The way to deal with this is to restate and rephrase not only what you say, but also what the other person has said.
So the next conversation you have, or the next time you hear someone make an argument, begin using these different techniques to become a critical and effective thinker!
Workplace stress is a modern epidemic. More than one-third of American workers experience chronic work stress. This is estimated to cost American businesses up to $300 billion a year in lost work hours and medical bills.
Clearly, if you’re suffering from work stress – you’re far from alone. But, work stress isn’t inevitable.
In this article, I’m going to help you identify the root cause of your stress and suggest the most suitable ways to cope with job stress so you can become a happy and productive worker again.
Certain factors tend to go hand-in-hand with work-related stress. The causes of stress include:
Too much work – you feel overwhelmed by your work and find yourself saying: “There are not enough hours in the day!”
The job is too easy, not challenging or inspiring – this is where boredom (which is stressful) sets in.
Pressure from co-workers or lack of social support – colleagues are not helpful or only care about their own tasks.
Little praise and lots of criticism – this is where a lousy manager uses constant criticism to ‘try’ to motivate you.
Very demanding or competitive working culture – sales departments often fit this category.
Not having enough control over job-related decisions – this is when people try to micro-manage you.
High expectations on yourself or seeking perfection – while it’s good to do your best, being a perfectionist can be a powerful stress generator.
Low salary – if you work hard but receive slim financial rewards, you may start to feel downhearted, frustrated and stressed.
The Negative Effects of Stress on Your Mind and Body
Chronic stress is bad news for your mental health and physical health. These are some health symptoms of stress:
If stress hormones are triggered in your body for extended periods, they can lead to increased physical aging. This is because stress makes your cells look and act older – and this is reflected in your physical appearance.
In addition to the negative effects on your body, stress also has a significant influence on your brain – negatively impacting your daily performance.
I recommend you watch the 4-minute video below to see just how stress can wreak havoc on your brain and your performance:
How to Cope with Work Stress (A Step-By-Step Guide)
You don’t need to be a victim of work stress. Here’s how to manage stress in the workplace:
1. Set aside some time for planning
If work has become too much for you, and you’re constantly falling behind… stop! Instead of trying and failing to catch up, you’d be much better off spending some time thinking about your goals and how your prioritize your tasks.
For instance, if your initial goal is just to get on top of your work (probably for the first time in months), then take 10 minutes to think clearly and deeply about how you can achieve this. Most likely, you’ll be able to come up with tasks that you need to complete to reach your goal. And once your goal and tasks are clear in your mind, you’ll be ready for the second step.
2. Align your tasks with your goal
Just knowing your goal and associated tasks is not enough. Many people reach this stage but still fall behind with their work and fail to achieve their goals.
The secret is to understand which of your tasks should be high priority and which ones can be done when you have spare time.
For example, checking your inbox every 20 minutes may seem to be a productive task for you, but in reality it acts as a constant distraction and productivity killer. Instead, you’d be better off setting aside 30 minutes in the morning to check your emails and 30 minutes in the afternoon to do the same.
By doing this, you’ll free up the bulk of your day for tasks that can help you reach your goal. These tasks are likely to be things like: writing a business proposal, creating a PowerPoint presentation, and finishing an important project.
How to tackle specific work stressors? I recommend the following method that WellCast introduced:
Take a piece of paper and divide it into three columns. At the top, write remove in the first column, change in the second and accept in the third.
Next, think of the stressors that are getting to you the most. Perhaps it’s your paycheck; it might be way smaller than you’d like or feel that you deserve. Don’t worry, this is your chance to break free from the stress surrounding your low pay.
To try to change your salary by asking for a pay rise
To accept that your salary is okay for you
You may be surprised at what thoughts come into your mind. Don’t reject them, but allow yourself time to be clear on how you’d like to proceed.
If the status quo feels good to you, then write “paycheck” in the accept column. If you decide you want to increase your salary but stay in the same company, write “paycheck” in the change column. And finally, if you decide the time is right to seek a new opportunity at a different organization, then write “paycheck” in the remove column.
By being decisive in this way, you’ll immediately feel freer and in control of your destiny. And your stress levels will begin to trend downwards. All that remains is to set yourself a clear goal of what you want to achieve and how you’re going to do this.(Luckily, steps #1 and #2 above will help you out!)
Of course, if you have multiple work stressors, then use your remove, change or accept sheet to work through all of them. It will be time VERY well spent.
4. Create positive relationships at work
One key to improving your ability to manage stress is being able to accept help from others. Not only does it alleviate negative circumstances by simply distracting you and creating a buffer between daily tasks and their negative connection, it will provide a sense of support and relief.
Make an effort to create friendships with your colleagues. Go to the after-work happy hour or just ask a colleague out for coffee at lunchtime. Not only will you have someone to confide in, but you will start to associate positive feelings to work.
Forming a healthy relationship with your manager or supervisor is also a good way to alleviate stress. Positive, two-way conversations about where you stand in your job, being honest about how you feel, and working together to make a plan of action in terms of improved work conditions and expectations are paramount. This will lead to opening up and receiving the necessary resources you need to support or help you.
5. Take time out for yourself
Anyone can get overwhelmed when stress occurs at work, and this can spill into other areas of your life. This is why it’s important to clock out mentally from your job from time to time.
Take time off to relax and unwind in order to regain your energy and come back to work invigorated. Make sure you actually do something you enjoy like spending time with your kids or partner, or visit that country you’ve always wanted to explore.
If taking time off work isn’t possible in the midst of your stress, take scheduled breaks throughout your day. Sit quietly somewhere or do some stretches to get your blood flowing like in the example below:
6. Take mindful action towards your health
The irony of stress is that your healthy habits can take a backseat. Maintaining and even improving your health will keep your stress under control. Here are some ways to keep you physically fit:
Eat healthy foods. Make sure your diet is full of foods that provide your body with sufficient nutrients. Eat more fruits and green vegetables, whole foods, omega-3 rich fish, and seeds such as flax, chia and hemp. These types of food ensure your body is working optimally to cope with its stress mechanisms.
Avoid unhealthy foods. This is obvious, but it’s these kinds of food you reach for in times of stress and negativity. High fat foods such as cheese and red meat cause sluggishness and tiredness. Foods high in refined sugars like biscuits, chocolate bars, and bread can be convenient snacks, but they cause you to crash and burn. Same with caffeinated drinks such as coffee and sodas – these are just ‘band aid’ habits that interfere with your ability to sleep.
Exercise regularly. Endorphins are the best for counteracting stress, and what better way to release them than doing physical exercise. Exercise creates a distraction and helps you get your thoughts back together in an orderly way. Start a new exercise regime – whether it’s running, swimming, cycling or walking to work. Getting your blood and endorphins flowing will make you feel happier.
Everyone encounters stress at work. It’s a natural and normal human reaction. The difference between letting the stress overcome you and coping with it is getting a head start by creating a positive environment and lifestyle.
Counteracting stress is both an inside and outside job. Focusing on improving your health will create a positive mind able to react better. Forming positive relationships with certain people around you will give you emotional support.