Advertising
Advertising

Possible Side Effects of Probiotics (And Why They Usually Pass)

Possible Side Effects of Probiotics (And Why They Usually Pass)

Taking probiotic supplements has become something of a trend lately. While there’s plenty of evidence of their health benefits, you may have heard some stories about unpleasant probiotics side effects. Fortunately, these aren’t anywhere near as common or as bad as they seem.

Probiotics are a type of bacteria known as “friendly” gut bacteria – also known as microflora – that reside in various parts of your body. While most of these are in the gastrointestinal tract, microflora is also present on your skin, in your mouth and other areas.

Numerous studies have shown that the health of your gut microflora can provide clues to your overall health and wellbeing.[1]

Digestive problems can be linked to imbalances in your gut bacteria, which in turn can lead to other serious conditions such as food allergies, behavioral disorders, mood changes, autoimmune disease, arthritis, chronic fatigue, skin disorders and even cancer. That’s why taking probiotics as a supplement has been touted as one of the most effective ways to get your health back on track.

Probiotic supplements are forms of living bacteria and yeasts that provide health benefits when taken in liquids, powders or capsules. They can also be eaten as probiotic foods such as like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, kimchi and miso.

What you might not realize, however, is that probiotic supplements can have some slightly unpleasant side effects at first! Although these do pass and only affect a small proportion of the population, it’s helpful to know what you’re in for when you begin a probiotics regime.

1. Digestive Symptoms

Because most of your body’s microflora lives in your gut, this is the area that will be targeted most acutely when you take probiotics. Typical symptoms may include some gas, bloating, cramps or just feeling a little more ‘full’ than usual.

Advertising

If your probiotic contains a strain of beneficial yeast, you may also experience a change in bowel movements. Some people also report feeling thirstier. One study suggested that these symptoms occur because the healthy new bacteria expand their territory in the gut, colonizing the small intestine and colon.[2]

Extra gas may also be caused by bacteria-induced changes to your gut motility or transit time. These alterations can sometimes cause abnormal intestinal spasms or prevent your stomach muscles from fully emptying the stomach of food you’ve eaten.

Although only a minority of people experience these symptoms, it’s helpful to know in advance. In fact, it’s also a good sign that the probiotic is actually working!

Fortunately, these symptoms usually subside after a week or two of taking the probiotic. If you really can’t cope, try reducing your daily dose to half that recommended on the label. You can then gradually increase your dose over the following weeks. This allows your gut to adjust to the new influx of bacteria slowly.

2. Amines in Probiotic Foods May Trigger Headaches

Headaches and migraines have also been reported by some new probiotic users. Although probiotic supplements don’t cause headaches, some foods seem to trigger mild symptoms. This may be due to amines, a substance created during the fermentation process. Foods rich in probiotic bacteria and protein (such as kimchi, yogurt or sauerkraut) contain small amounts of amines. The subtypes of amines include tyramine, tryptamine, and histamine.

It’s been found that large amounts of amines can overstimulate your nervous system, causing a sudden increase or decrease in blood flow. In some cases, this can lead to headaches or migraine. One study found that reducing your intake of amines with a low-histamine diet tends to correspond with a reduction of headache symptoms.[3]

It’s also possible that a minor Herxheimer-like reaction could be to blame. This occurs when bacteria or yeast in your gut die off in large numbers. If you experience a die-off reaction[4] after starting your probiotic regime, it can also because some of the older bacteria within your gastrointestinal tract are dying off and releasing some pro-inflammatory cytokines. This can cause oxidative stress or the release of endotoxins. Fortunately, this phase should pass once your body adjusts to the probiotic.

Advertising

It may help to keep a food diary while eating probiotic foods in order to pinpoint the cause of your headaches. Keep drinking plenty of water to flush any excess toxins out.

3. Adverse Reactions to Allergens

Those with food intolerances or allergies may be more susceptible to adverse reactions from probiotics. One of the most common reactions is to the dairy content of probiotics.

Many probiotic strains are derived from dairy and contain lactose, the sugar in milk. However, studies suggest that the probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk products can actually reduce the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

Every case is unique, and a minority of people with lactose intolerance can suffer from gas and bloating when consuming probiotic strains like Bifidobacterium bifidum when they begin their course. Although these symptoms may dissipate, it’s advisable to switch to dairy-free probiotics.

Those with egg or soy intolerances may react to the presence of these allergens in some products. Similarly, those who are sensitive or allergic to yeast should avoid supplements that contain yeast strains.

If you have sensitivities or allergies to certain foods, check the label on the product before purchasing.

Another factor to consider is that many probiotic supplements also contain prebiotics. These are plant fibers that your body cannot break down, so instead, your gut bacteria consume as ‘food’. The most common prebiotics include lactulose, inulin, and various oligosaccharides.

Advertising

Although the fermentation process is usually beneficial to your gut bacteria, these prebiotics can cause some extra bloating and gassiness. This is not an allergic reaction as such, but can sometimes be enough to put people off taking the probiotic.

4. Skin Reactions

Although rare, there have been some reports of probiotics causing skin rashes or mild itching.

A review conducted in 2018 found that a small number of IBS patients who took a probiotic to treat their symptoms developed an itchy rash.[5] As a result, at least one patient dropped out of the trial.

If you begin a new probiotic supplement and find that your skin is suddenly itchy, it’s likely to be a temporary response that will pass within a few days. While the itchiness may be annoying, it’s unlikely to become severe or debilitating.

One of the theories for skin itchiness or rashes after taking probiotics is that the bacteria are triggering an allergy. If you are allergic to one of the added ingredients in a particular supplement – such as egg, soy or dairy – your immune system may cause an inflammatory response. This may also occur after eating fermented foods that contain a high amount of biogenic amines such as histamine. These responses are quite natural when a new bacterial species is introduced to your gut. If you already have a histamine intolerance or sensitivity, you may be more likely to end up with a skin rash or itchiness.

If the problem becomes too much to bear, stop taking the probiotic and consult a health practitioner. Check the ingredients on the label. When your rash clears, try a different probiotic product that contains different ingredients.

5. May Contribute to Small intestine Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)

A 2018 study suggested that there may be a link between SIBO and probiotic supplementation in people who regularly suffer from ‘brain fog’.[6] It appears that the symptoms of these people improved when they stopped taking probiotics and started taking antibiotics.

Advertising

The bacteria in your small and large intestines are usually somewhat different from one another in terms of species and strains. Your large intestine contains mostly anaerobic bacteria, which can grow without oxygen. These bacteria survive by fermenting prebiotics, the carbohydrates that cannot be broken down in the gut.

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth SIBO occurs when bacteria from your large intestine end up in your small intestine and start growing. Symptoms are often mistaken for IBS because they include gas, bloating, and diarrhea. Sometimes, SIBO can cause ‘brain fog’ and short-term memory problems. In fact, SIBO is more common in those with IBS.

Although it’s not known what causes the bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, some researchers suggest it can be a result of sluggish gut motility. This causes food to spend longer periods of time in the gut, which in turn means more fermentation in the small intestine.

Probiotics Side Effects Are Usually Only Temporary

Most of these side-effects only occur in a handful of cases. They usually only last for a short period of time after starting a probiotic regime, and will go away as your body adjusts.

If the side effects are caused by your gut adjusting and rebalancing, the worst thing you can do is stop taking the probiotic!

If your side effects are caused by an allergy or intolerance, or by an excess of histamine, you may want to look for a different probiotic or stop taking probiotics altogether.

Speak to your healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for your gut health and overall wellbeing.

More About Probiotics and Prebiotics

Featured photo credit: Paweł Czerwiński via unsplash.com

Reference

More by this author

Lisa Richards

Nutritionist, Creator of The Candida Diet, Owner of TheCandidaDiet.com

best tea for weight loss 8 Best Teas for Weight Loss and Fat Burning 6 Health Benefits of Tumeric (And How to Take It For Good) What to Eat to Speed Up Metabolism and Burn Fat 14 Low GI Foods for a Healthier Diet 8 Best Fiber Supplements on iHerbs (Reviewed by a Gut Health Expert)

Trending in Physical Strength

1 Does Keto Weight Loss Diet Plan Actually Work? 2 10 Best Healthy and Natural Weight Loss Supplements 3 How to Find Weight Loss Meal Plans That Work for You 4 Intermittent Fasting Diet for Beginners (The Complete Guide) 5 17 Weight Loss Recipes That Are Incredibly Nutritious and Super Delicious

Read Next

Advertising
Advertising
Advertising

Last Updated on October 5, 2020

Intermittent Fasting Weight Loss (The Ultimate Weight Loss Hack)

Intermittent Fasting Weight Loss (The Ultimate Weight Loss Hack)

Intermittent fasting weight loss is a type of diet that’s rapidly growing in popularity and becoming the way to lose weight. Scientists and nutrition experts like it, too. New books and articles on the topic are being published daily. Intermittent fasting is also popular with followers of the Paleo diet since our ancestors appear to have eaten this way for thousands of years.

I’ve been following this type of diet myself for 2 years. Doing so helped me lose and keep off 70 pounds without ever having to count calories, limit carbohydrates, or eat 6 to 7 meals a day.

This article teaches you all about intermittent fasting weight loss and details why it is one of the best weight loss diet hacks around. Once you finish, you will be able to implement into your diet and experience the benefits it offers almost immediately.

What Is Intermittent Fasting?

As you may have figured from its name, intermittent fasting weight loss is a diet plan where you set fasting periods during the day. This is usually between 16-20 consecutive hours, but it can be as little as 12 hours or as much as 24 hours (or even 36 hours).

While fasting you can eat and drink low calorie or calorie-free foods. Think coffee, tea, water, and vegetables.

The more time you spend fasting every day, the better your results. You can do these fasts as often as you like. Again, the more often you do so, the better[1].

Getting Started With Intermittent Fasting

Following this diet plan is super simple. All you have to do is choose a period of time during the day that you will fast. This should be between 16-20 hours.

The longer you fast each day, the better. Don’t worry about calorie restriction or measuring carbohydrates. Just focus on going about your day until it’s time to eat.

It’s best to choose a set period of time to conduct your fast. I like to fast from 8 PM to 4 PM the following afternoon. I’ll then have my first meal of the day and a snack or two a few hours later. Once 8 o’clock rolls around, it’s back to fasting.

Advertising

My experience with intermittent fasting is that it’s best to start with a 16 hour fast (i.e. 8PM one evening to 12PM the next day) for the first 1-2 weeks. Once you are comfortable with this schedule, you can increase the amount of time you spend fasting. Do this by adding 30 minutes to each fast until you get to where you are fasting for 20 hours at a time.

You don’t have to fast every day in the beginning either. You may be more comfortable breaking in slowly with 2 or 3 days per week, or trying alternate day fasting. Add additional days of intermittent fasting as you become more comfortable with this style of eating.

Tips To Make Intermittent Fasting Easier

1. Drink Plenty of Water

Squeeze a little lemon or lime juice into your water to help get rid of any cravings you experience. You can also drink coffee, tea, or other calorie-free beverages. After a few weeks, you will find that intermittent fasting keeps you from craving sugar entirely.

2. Take in Caffeine in the Morning and Early Afternoon

The caffeine in coffee and tea may actually make intermittent fasting weight loss a little easier since it’s good for curbing your appetite. Be careful not to overindulge as this may lead to you feeling a little too wired. I also recommend these natural energy boosting tips to keep you going during the day.

3. Avoid Artificially Flavored Drinks

One type of calorie-free drink that should be avoided are diet sodas and other beverages that use artificial sweeteners like Splenda and Sweet & Low. Studies show that the can actually stimulate your appetite[2] like a drink that contains sugar and cause you to overeat.

4. Don’t Gorge at Your First Meal

The first meal after your fast should be the amount of food you typically eat. Binging will only make you feel awful and diminish the benefits you get from the fast.

To avoid this, try creating meal plans, at least for the first few weeks. This will help you get into the rhythm of eating regularly portioned meals during your eating window.

5. Minimize Processed Carbohydrates and Sugars

While intermittent fasting does make it possible to eat a little looser than normal, you should still eat as little bread, pasta, rice, etc. as possible.

Focus instead on eating protein from beef, fish, or pork, carbohydrates from vegetables, fruit, and sweet potatoes, and healthy fats from foods like almonds, avocados, fish, and olive oil.

Advertising

You can find some carb sources that will aid your weight loss journey here.

How Intermittent Fasting Helps You Lose Weight

Eating this way has many benefits with regard to weight loss. The first is that when you’re fasting, your body will be forced to use its stored body fat for energy. Burning calories this way, instead of from the food you’re eating throughout the day, will help you experience significant weight loss, but specifically lose weight from any excess body fat you’re carrying.

This means that you won’t just be thinner, but you will also look better and be much healthier than if you lose weight the old-fashioned way[3].

Intermittent fasting can help optimize the release of the key fat-burning hormones in your body. This is especially true for the two most important hormones: human growth hormone (HGH) and insulin.

Human growth hormone plays a key role in turning on your body’s fat-burning furnace so that it gets the calories you need to work and play from stored body fat. Studies show that fasting can significantly increase the production of HGH[4].

The influence intermittent fasting weight loss has on insulin is just as impressive and possibly more important. Keeping your insulin levels low and steady is key to losing excess fat and keeping it off.

Diets that are rich in processed carbohydrates (bread, pasta, rice) and simple sugars (candy, cookies, and soda) have the opposite effect. They cause your insulin levels to rapidly spike and then crash every time you eat one of these foods. The net result of this phenomenon is that your body will store more of what you eat as excess body fat instead of burning it off as energy.

Chronically elevating your insulin levels like this can also lead to the development of type II diabetes, obesity, and other chronic health problems. Intermittent fasting easily solves this problem.

One study found that men who participated in intermittent fasting had “dramatically lower insulin levels and significantly improved insulin sensitivity”[5].

Advertising

This happens because you’re not giving your body food, so it will not produce insulin, allowing insulin levels to balance out until you eat again. This helps your body stay in a calorie and fa-burning state. You’ll also find that it gives you more energy throughout the day.

Another great weight loss benefit of intermittent fasting is that hunger pangs and cravings that may normally plague you throughout the day will be reduced, if not altogether eliminated. This is probably due to its ability to balance your insulin and blood sugar levels and, in turn, help correct other hormonal imbalances.

Intermittent Fasting Weight Loss FAQs

Now that you know what intermittent fasting is and how to get started, it’s time to answer your other questions.

Below are answers to the questions frequently asked about intermittent fasting. These answers should help you and make getting started a lot easier.

How Much Weight Will I Lose?

The amount of weight you lose with fasting is determined by how often and long your fasts are, what you eat afterward, and other factors. Fasting for 16-20 hours a day can help you safely lose 2-3 pounds of fat every week.

While losing this much weight every week is great, it’s how it makes it happen that’s really cool. Losing weight with intermittent fasting means that you will never have to count calories or plan and prepare several meals a day.

Can I Work out While Fasting?

Yes, you can. In fact, doing the right type of workout while fasting will help you lose weight faster and even build muscle.

The best workouts to do while fasting for weight loss are 3-4 intense strength training workouts weekly. This means anything from standard strength training to kettlebell or body weight workouts.

Focus on doing 3-4 total body exercises per workout with as little rest as possible between sets. Doing this will help you burn more calories during and after your workout. You’ll also build muscle, which will help you look and feel better as the weight comes off.

Advertising

Won’t I Lose Muscle When I Fast?

First of all, you aren’t fasting long enough for your body to start breaking down muscle for energy. You have, perhaps, hundreds of thousands of calories from your stored body fat to use before that will begin to happen. Studies actually show that even after fasting for 3 days, no muscle is lost.

Is Fasting Safe?

As long as you are healthy, not pregnant, and aren’t taking medications, fasting is safe. Like all diets, you should discuss it with your doctor before beginning an intermittent fasting style of dieting.

I also feel that it may not be smart to follow this type of diet when you’re especially stressed. Since this diet can be a little stress-inducing at first, doing so when your ability to be relatively stress-free and rested probably isn’t a good idea.

Are There Any Supplements I Can Take to Make Fasting Easier?

As with any other weight loss plan, it’s a good idea to take a few nutritional supplements to ensure that your daily requirements are met. This includes a once or twice daily multi-vitamin, fish oil, and vitamin D.

I’ve also found taking 10 grams of branch chain amino acids before and after my workouts really helps, too. They’re great for giving you more energy during your workout and decreasing post-workout muscle soreness.

For supplements to specifically help with digestion, check out this article.

Conclusion

Now you know what intermittent fasting is and how it can help you lose weight quickly, safely, and pretty much effortlessly.

If you want to give it a try, find a fasting schedule that fits with you lifestyle and give it a go.

More About Intermittent Fasting

Featured photo credit: Toa Heftiba via unsplash.com

Reference

Read Next