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Published on August 2, 2019

Possible Side Effects of Probiotics (And Why They Usually Pass)

Possible Side Effects of Probiotics (And Why They Usually Pass)

Taking probiotic supplements has become something of a trend lately. While there’s plenty of evidence of their health benefits, you may have heard some stories about unpleasant probiotics side effects. Fortunately, these aren’t anywhere near as common or as bad as they seem.

Probiotics are a type of bacteria known as “friendly” gut bacteria – also known as microflora – that reside in various parts of your body. While most of these are in the gastrointestinal tract, microflora is also present on your skin, in your mouth and other areas.

Numerous studies have shown that the health of your gut microflora can provide clues to your overall health and wellbeing.[1]

Digestive problems can be linked to imbalances in your gut bacteria, which in turn can lead to other serious conditions such as food allergies, behavioral disorders, mood changes, autoimmune disease, arthritis, chronic fatigue, skin disorders and even cancer. That’s why taking probiotics as a supplement has been touted as one of the most effective ways to get your health back on track.

Probiotic supplements are forms of living bacteria and yeasts that provide health benefits when taken in liquids, powders or capsules. They can also be eaten as probiotic foods such as like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, kimchi and miso.

What you might not realize, however, is that probiotic supplements can have some slightly unpleasant side effects at first! Although these do pass and only affect a small proportion of the population, it’s helpful to know what you’re in for when you begin a probiotics regime.

1. Digestive Symptoms

Because most of your body’s microflora lives in your gut, this is the area that will be targeted most acutely when you take probiotics. Typical symptoms may include some gas, bloating, cramps or just feeling a little more ‘full’ than usual.

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If your probiotic contains a strain of beneficial yeast, you may also experience a change in bowel movements. Some people also report feeling thirstier. One study suggested that these symptoms occur because the healthy new bacteria expand their territory in the gut, colonizing the small intestine and colon.[2]

Extra gas may also be caused by bacteria-induced changes to your gut motility or transit time. These alterations can sometimes cause abnormal intestinal spasms or prevent your stomach muscles from fully emptying the stomach of food you’ve eaten.

Although only a minority of people experience these symptoms, it’s helpful to know in advance. In fact, it’s also a good sign that the probiotic is actually working!

Fortunately, these symptoms usually subside after a week or two of taking the probiotic. If you really can’t cope, try reducing your daily dose to half that recommended on the label. You can then gradually increase your dose over the following weeks. This allows your gut to adjust to the new influx of bacteria slowly.

2. Amines in Probiotic Foods May Trigger Headaches

Headaches and migraines have also been reported by some new probiotic users. Although probiotic supplements don’t cause headaches, some foods seem to trigger mild symptoms. This may be due to amines, a substance created during the fermentation process. Foods rich in probiotic bacteria and protein (such as kimchi, yogurt or sauerkraut) contain small amounts of amines. The subtypes of amines include tyramine, tryptamine, and histamine.

It’s been found that large amounts of amines can overstimulate your nervous system, causing a sudden increase or decrease in blood flow. In some cases, this can lead to headaches or migraine. One study found that reducing your intake of amines with a low-histamine diet tends to correspond with a reduction of headache symptoms.[3]

It’s also possible that a minor Herxheimer-like reaction could be to blame. This occurs when bacteria or yeast in your gut die off in large numbers. If you experience a die-off reaction[4] after starting your probiotic regime, it can also because some of the older bacteria within your gastrointestinal tract are dying off and releasing some pro-inflammatory cytokines. This can cause oxidative stress or the release of endotoxins. Fortunately, this phase should pass once your body adjusts to the probiotic.

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It may help to keep a food diary while eating probiotic foods in order to pinpoint the cause of your headaches. Keep drinking plenty of water to flush any excess toxins out.

3. Adverse Reactions to Allergens

Those with food intolerances or allergies may be more susceptible to adverse reactions from probiotics. One of the most common reactions is to the dairy content of probiotics.

Many probiotic strains are derived from dairy and contain lactose, the sugar in milk. However, studies suggest that the probiotic bacteria in fermented and unfermented milk products can actually reduce the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

Every case is unique, and a minority of people with lactose intolerance can suffer from gas and bloating when consuming probiotic strains like Bifidobacterium bifidum when they begin their course. Although these symptoms may dissipate, it’s advisable to switch to dairy-free probiotics.

Those with egg or soy intolerances may react to the presence of these allergens in some products. Similarly, those who are sensitive or allergic to yeast should avoid supplements that contain yeast strains.

If you have sensitivities or allergies to certain foods, check the label on the product before purchasing.

Another factor to consider is that many probiotic supplements also contain prebiotics. These are plant fibers that your body cannot break down, so instead, your gut bacteria consume as ‘food’. The most common prebiotics include lactulose, inulin, and various oligosaccharides.

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Although the fermentation process is usually beneficial to your gut bacteria, these prebiotics can cause some extra bloating and gassiness. This is not an allergic reaction as such, but can sometimes be enough to put people off taking the probiotic.

4. Skin Reactions

Although rare, there have been some reports of probiotics causing skin rashes or mild itching.

A review conducted in 2018 found that a small number of IBS patients who took a probiotic to treat their symptoms developed an itchy rash.[5] As a result, at least one patient dropped out of the trial.

If you begin a new probiotic supplement and find that your skin is suddenly itchy, it’s likely to be a temporary response that will pass within a few days. While the itchiness may be annoying, it’s unlikely to become severe or debilitating.

One of the theories for skin itchiness or rashes after taking probiotics is that the bacteria are triggering an allergy. If you are allergic to one of the added ingredients in a particular supplement – such as egg, soy or dairy – your immune system may cause an inflammatory response. This may also occur after eating fermented foods that contain a high amount of biogenic amines such as histamine. These responses are quite natural when a new bacterial species is introduced to your gut. If you already have a histamine intolerance or sensitivity, you may be more likely to end up with a skin rash or itchiness.

If the problem becomes too much to bear, stop taking the probiotic and consult a health practitioner. Check the ingredients on the label. When your rash clears, try a different probiotic product that contains different ingredients.

5. May Contribute to Small intestine Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO)

A 2018 study suggested that there may be a link between SIBO and probiotic supplementation in people who regularly suffer from ‘brain fog’.[6] It appears that the symptoms of these people improved when they stopped taking probiotics and started taking antibiotics.

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The bacteria in your small and large intestines are usually somewhat different from one another in terms of species and strains. Your large intestine contains mostly anaerobic bacteria, which can grow without oxygen. These bacteria survive by fermenting prebiotics, the carbohydrates that cannot be broken down in the gut.

Small intestine bacterial overgrowth SIBO occurs when bacteria from your large intestine end up in your small intestine and start growing. Symptoms are often mistaken for IBS because they include gas, bloating, and diarrhea. Sometimes, SIBO can cause ‘brain fog’ and short-term memory problems. In fact, SIBO is more common in those with IBS.

Although it’s not known what causes the bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine, some researchers suggest it can be a result of sluggish gut motility. This causes food to spend longer periods of time in the gut, which in turn means more fermentation in the small intestine.

Probiotics Side Effects Are Usually Only Temporary

Most of these side-effects only occur in a handful of cases. They usually only last for a short period of time after starting a probiotic regime, and will go away as your body adjusts.

If the side effects are caused by your gut adjusting and rebalancing, the worst thing you can do is stop taking the probiotic!

If your side effects are caused by an allergy or intolerance, or by an excess of histamine, you may want to look for a different probiotic or stop taking probiotics altogether.

Speak to your healthcare provider to determine the best course of action for your gut health and overall wellbeing.

More About Probiotics and Prebiotics

Featured photo credit: Paweł Czerwiński via unsplash.com

Reference

More by this author

Lisa Richards

Nutritionist, Creator of the Candida Diet, Owner of TheCandidaDiet.com

Possible Side Effects of Probiotics (And Why They Usually Pass) What to Eat When Constipated? 10 Foods to Improve Your Gut Health What Helps Yeast Infections: Foods To Eat And Avoid Prebiotic vs Probiotic: What’s the Difference and Why Are They Important? 7 Best Probiotic Supplements (Recommendation & Reviews)

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Last Updated on August 12, 2019

12 Best Foods That Improve Memory and Brain Health

12 Best Foods That Improve Memory and Brain Health

Nutrition plays a vital role in brain function and staying sharp into the golden years. Personally, my husband is going through medical school, which is like a daily mental marathon. Like any good wife, I am always looking for things that will boost his memory fortitude so he does his best in school.

But you don’t have to be a med student to appreciate better brainiac brilliance. If you combine certain foods with good hydration, proper sleep and exercise, you may just rival Einstein and have a great memory in no time.

I’m going to reveal the list of foods coming out of the kitchen that can improve your memory and make you smarter.

Here are 12 best brain foods that improve memory and brain power:

1. Nuts

The American Journal of Epidemiology published a study linking higher intakes of vitamin E with the prevention on cognitive decline.[1]

Nuts like walnuts and almonds (along with other great foods like avocados) are a great source of vitamin E.

Cashews and sunflower seeds also contain an amino acid that reduces stress by boosting serotonin levels.

Walnuts even resemble the brain, just in case you forget the correlation, and are a great source of omega 3 fatty acids, which also improve your mental magnitude.

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2. Blueberries

Shown in studies at Tuffs University to benefit both short-term memory and coordination, blueberries pack quite a punch in a tiny blue package.[2]

When compared to other fruits and veggies, blueberries were found to have the highest amount of antioxidants (especially flavonoids), but strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries are also full of brain benefits.

3. Tomatoes

Tomatoes are packed full of the antioxidant lycopene, which has shown to help protect against free-radical damage most notably seen in dementia patients.

4. Broccoli

While all green veggies are important and rich in antioxidants and vitamin C, broccoli is a superfood even among these healthy choices.

Since your brain uses so much fuel (it’s only 3% of your body weight but uses up to 17% of your energy), it is more vulnerable to free-radical damage and antioxidants help eliminate this threat.

Broccoli is packed full of antioxidants, is well-known as a powerful cancer fighter and is also full of vitamin K, which is known to enhance cognitive function.

5. Foods Rich in Essential Fatty Acids

Your brain is the fattest organ (not counting the skin) in the human body, and is composed of 60% fat. That means that your brain needs essential fatty acids like DHA and EPA to repair and build up synapses associated with memory.

The body does not naturally produce essential fatty acids so we must get them in our diet.

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Eggs, flax, and oily fish like salmon, sardines, mackerel and herring are great natural sources of these powerful fatty acids. Eggs also contain choline, which is a necessary building block for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, to help you recall information and concentrate.

6. Soy

Soy, along with many other whole foods mentioned here, are full of proteins that trigger neurotransmitters associated with memory.

Soy protein isolate is a concentrated form of the protein that can be found in powder, liquid, or supplement form.

Soy is valuable for improving memory and mental flexibility, so pour soy milk over your cereal and enjoy the benefits.

7. Dark Chocolate

When it comes to chocolate, the darker the better. Try to aim for at least 70% cocoa. This yummy desert is rich in flavanol antioxidants which increase blood flow to the brain and shield brain cells from aging.

Take a look at this article if you want to know more benefits of dark chocolate: 15 Surprising and Science-Backed Health Effects of Dark Chocolate

8. Foods Rich in Vitamins: B vitamins, Folic Acid, Iron

Some great foods to obtain brain-boosting B vitamins, folic acid and iron are kale, chard, spinach and other dark leafy greens.

B6, B12 and folic acid can reduce levels of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine increases are found in patients with cognitive impairment like Alzheimer’s, and high risk of stroke.

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Studies showed when a group of elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment were given high doses of B6, B12, and folic acid, there was significant reduction in brain shrinkage compared to a similar placebo group.[3]

Other sources of B vitamins are liver, eggs, soybeans, lentils and green beans. Iron also helps accelerate brain function by carrying oxygen. If your brain doesn’t get enough oxygen, it can slow down and people can experience difficulty concentrating, diminished intellect, and a shorter attention span.

To get more iron in your diet, eat lean meats, beans, and iron-fortified cereals. Vitamin C helps in iron absorption, so don’t forget the fruits!

9. Foods Rich in Zinc

Zinc has constantly demonstrated its importance as a powerful nutrient in memory building and thinking. This mineral regulates communications between neurons and the hippocampus.

Zinc is deposited within nerve cells, with the highest concentrations found in the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for higher learning function and memory.

Some great sources of zinc are pumpkin seeds, liver, nuts, and peas.

10. Gingko Biloba

This herb has been utilized for centuries in eastern culture and is best known for its memory boosting brawn.

It can increase blood flow in the brain by dilating vessels, increasing oxygen supply and removing free radicals.

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However, don’t expect results overnight: this may take a few weeks to build up in your system before you see improvements.

11. Green and Black Tea

Studies have shown that both green and black tea prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine—a key chemical involved in memory and lacking in Alzheimer’s patients.

Both teas appear to have the same affect on Alzheimer’s disease as many drugs utilized to combat the illness, but green tea wins out as its affects last a full week versus black tea which only lasts the day.

Find out more about green tea here: 11 Health Benefits of Green Tea (+ How to Drink It for Maximum Benefits)

12. Sage and Rosemary

Both of these powerful herbs have been shown to increase memory and mental clarity, and alleviate mental fatigue in studies.

Try to enjoy these savory herbs in your favorite dishes.

When it comes to mental magnitude, eating smart can really make you smarter. Try to implement more of these readily available nutrients and see just how brainy you can be!

More About Boosting Brain Power

Featured photo credit: Pexels via pexels.com

Reference

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