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Persistent Depression Damages Cognitive Functions, Study Concludes

Persistent Depression Damages Cognitive Functions, Study Concludes

A global study involving 9,000 people has found that persistent and recurring depression can lead to a shrinking of one key area of the brain. This zone is known as the hippocampus (Greek for seahorse) and it does indeed look like one.

This is the area which helps us store long term memories and plays an essential role in connecting our emotions to memories, personality, and consciousness. It can also help us with spatial navigation. It is one of the first areas of the brain to be affected by Alzheimer’s and explains why recent memories are such a big problem for those affected.

Research details

The depression research project involved 15 institutes from all over the world. Researchers compared people possessing normal hippocampi with those who were suffering from persistent depression. This was the largest comparative study of brain volumes ever carried out. The results showed that people who had no treatment for depression (or had recurring episodes over long periods) ended up with a smaller hippocampus.

Researchers used brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and this clearly showed that two thirds of the depressed patients who had recurrences over long periods of time were the ones who had a smaller hippocampus.

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“The more episodes of depression a person had, the greater the reduction in hippocampus size.” – Prof. Ian Hickie, co-director of the research project

What are the implications for the treatment of depression?

First, the good news is that treatment with anti-depressants may help to preserve the size of the hippocampus. There are a wide variety of these drugs available, including Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, or SSRIs, which help to balance serotonin and can improve mood. Other popular medications include tricyclic antidepressants.

Of course, it must be remembered that all anti-depressants are required by the FDA to carry a black box warning of possible suicidal thoughts. This usually occurs at the beginning of treatment in teens and young adults or if a drug or dosage is changed.

“There is a lot of nonsense said about antidepressants that constantly perpetuates the evils of them, but there is a good bit of evidence that they have a protective effect.”- Prof. Ian Hickie.

Experts are now convinced that medication in treating depression is just one of the many alternatives available.

Why talk therapy is a valid alternative

Talk therapy is another possible treatment for depression, with various types that can suit individual needs. The chance to talk about depression without being judged, misunderstood or even criticized cannot be overestimated. It is a great way to approach problems and possible ways of solving them. Most medications can never do that quite as effectively.

Additionally, there is a wide range of supplements and lifestyle changes which can help a patient to maintain balance and prevent relapses. These can range from exercise which helps the brain to rewire itself in positive ways to dietary and mindfulness routines.

Research presents no conclusive results regardging the use of supplements but it seems that fish oil, SAMe and folic acid hold out some promise.

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“There’s promising evidence for certain supplements for depression. But more research needs to be done before we’ll know for sure.” – Dr. Ian Cook, Director of the Depression Research Program at UCLA.

The way forward

Depression is still not fully understood. We know that certain areas of the brain such as the hippocampus are involved, but experts are not sure how they all interlink and what mechanisms are at work.

“Despite intensive research aimed at identifying brain structures linked to depression in recent decades, our understanding of what causes depression is still rudimentary.”- Prof. Jim Lagapoulos, co-author of the research project, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney.

One thing is certain. We have learned from the research on the hippocampus that lack of treatment or recurring depression are affecting the brain. Processing emotions and memories are at risk. That sends a very clear message — there may be other areas of the brain affected which may have more serious consequences. But this damage is in many cases also reversible.

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This is why we can never ignore depression and always seek treatment when or if it should happen to us or our loved ones.

Featured photo credit: Sigh, Clouds, Rain, Sigh, Iceland via flickr.com

More by this author

Robert Locke

Author of Ziger the Tiger Stories, a health enthusiast specializing in relationships, life improvement and mental health.

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Last Updated on July 10, 2020

How to Take Control of Your Life with Better Boundaries

How to Take Control of Your Life with Better Boundaries

We all have them—those hurtful, frustrating, offensive, manipulative people in our lives. No matter how hard we try to surround ourselves with positive and kind people, there will always be those who will disrespect, insult, berate, and misuse you if we allow them to.

We may, for a variety of reasons, not be able to avoid them, but we can determine how we interact with them and how we allow them to interact with us.

So, how to take control of your life and stop being pushed around?

Learning to set clear firm boundaries with the people in our lives at work and in our personal lives is the best way to protect ourselves from the negative effects of this kind of behavior.

What Boundaries Are (And What They’re Not)

Boundaries are limits

—they are not threats or ultimatums. Boundaries inform or teach. They are not a form of punishment.

Boundaries are firm lines—determined by you—which cannot be crossed by those around you. They are guidelines for how you will allow others to treat you and what kind of behaviors you will expect.

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Healthy personal boundaries help protect you from physical or emotional pain. You may also need to set firm boundaries at work to ensure you and your time are not disrespected. Don’t allow others to take advantage of your kindness and generosity.

Clear boundaries communicate to others that you demand respect and consideration—that you are willing to stand up for yourself and that you will not be a doormat for anyone. They are a “no trespassing” sign that makes it very clear when a line has been crossed and that there will be consequences for doing so.

Boundaries are not set with the intention of changing other people. They may change how people interact with you, but they are more about enforcing your needs than attempting to change the general behavior and attitude of others.

How to Establish Boundaries and Take Control of Your Life

Here are some ways that you can establish boundaries and take control of your life.

1. Self-Awareness Comes First

Before you can establish boundaries with others, you first need to understand what your needs are.

You are entitled to respect. You have the right to protect yourself from inappropriate or offensive behavior. Setting boundaries is a way of honoring your needs.

To set appropriate boundaries, you need to be clear about what healthy behaviors look like—what healthy relationships look like.

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You first have to become more aware of your feelings and honest with yourself about your expectations and what you feel is appropriate behavior:

  • Where do you need to establish better boundaries?
  • When do you feel disrespected?
  • When do you feel violated, frustrated, or angered by the behavior of others?
  • In what situations do you feel you are being mistreated or taken advantage of?
  • When do you want to be alone?
  • How much space do you need?

You need to honor your own needs and boundaries before you can expect others to honor them. This allows you to take control of your life.

2. Clear Communication Is Essential

Inform others clearly and directly what your expectations are. It is essential to have clear communication if you want others to respect your boundaries. Explain in an honest and respectful tone what you find offensive or unacceptable.

Many people simply aren’t aware that they are behaving inappropriately. They may never have been taught proper manners or consideration for others.

3. Be Specific but Don’t Blame

Taking a blaming or punishing attitude automatically puts people on the defensive. People will not listen when they feel attacked. It’s part of human nature.

That said, you do not need to overexplain or defend yourself. Boundaries are not open to compromise.

Sample language:

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  • “You may not…yell or raise your voice to me…”
  • “I need…to be treated with respect…”
  • “It’s not okay when…you take things from my desk without asking…”
  • “I won’t…do your work…cover for you anymore…”
  • “It’s not acceptable when…you ridicule or insult me…”
  • “I am uncomfortable when…you use offensive language”
  • “I will no longer be able to…lend you money…”

Being able to communicate these without sounding accusatory is essential if you want others to respect your boundaries so you can take control of your life.

4. Consequences Are Often Necessary

Determine what the appropriate consequences will be when boundaries are crossed. If it’s appropriate, be clear about those consequences upfront when communicating those boundaries to others.

Follow through. People won’t respect your boundaries if you don’t enforce them.

Standing our ground and forcing consequences doesn’t come easily to us. We want to be nice. We want people to like us, but we shouldn’t have to trade our self-respect to gain friends or to achieve success.

We may be tempted to let minor disrespect slide to avoid conflict, but as the familiar saying goes, “if you give people an inch, they’ll take a mile.”

It’s much easier to address offensive or inappropriate behavior now than to wait until that behavior has gotten completely out of hand.

It’s also important to remember that positive reinforcement is even more powerful than negative consequences. When people do alter the way they treat you, acknowledge it. Let people know that you notice and appreciate their efforts.

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Final Thoughts

Respect is always a valid reason for setting a boundary. Don’t defend yourself or your needs. Boundaries are often necessary to protect your time, your space, and your feelings. And these are essential if you want to take control of your life.

Start with the easiest boundaries first. Setting boundaries is a skill that needs to be practiced. Enlist support from others if necessary. Inform people immediately when they have crossed the line.

Don’t wait. Communicate politely and directly. Be clear about the consequences and follow them through.

The better you become at setting your own boundaries, the better you become at recognizing and respecting the boundaries of others.

Remember that establishing boundaries is your right. You are entitled to respect. You can’t control how other people behave, but you do have control over the way you allow people to treat you.

Learning to set boundaries is not always easy, but with time, it will become more comfortable. You may eventually find that boundaries become automatic and you no longer need to consciously set them.

They will simply become a natural extension of your self-respect.

Featured photo credit: Thomas Kelley via unsplash.com

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