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Persistent Depression Damages Cognitive Functions, Study Concludes

Persistent Depression Damages Cognitive Functions, Study Concludes

A global study involving 9,000 people has found that persistent and recurring depression can lead to a shrinking of one key area of the brain. This zone is known as the hippocampus (Greek for seahorse) and it does indeed look like one.

This is the area which helps us store long term memories and plays an essential role in connecting our emotions to memories, personality, and consciousness. It can also help us with spatial navigation. It is one of the first areas of the brain to be affected by Alzheimer’s and explains why recent memories are such a big problem for those affected.

Research details

The depression research project involved 15 institutes from all over the world. Researchers compared people possessing normal hippocampi with those who were suffering from persistent depression. This was the largest comparative study of brain volumes ever carried out. The results showed that people who had no treatment for depression (or had recurring episodes over long periods) ended up with a smaller hippocampus.

Researchers used brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and this clearly showed that two thirds of the depressed patients who had recurrences over long periods of time were the ones who had a smaller hippocampus.

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“The more episodes of depression a person had, the greater the reduction in hippocampus size.” – Prof. Ian Hickie, co-director of the research project

What are the implications for the treatment of depression?

First, the good news is that treatment with anti-depressants may help to preserve the size of the hippocampus. There are a wide variety of these drugs available, including Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, or SSRIs, which help to balance serotonin and can improve mood. Other popular medications include tricyclic antidepressants.

Of course, it must be remembered that all anti-depressants are required by the FDA to carry a black box warning of possible suicidal thoughts. This usually occurs at the beginning of treatment in teens and young adults or if a drug or dosage is changed.

“There is a lot of nonsense said about antidepressants that constantly perpetuates the evils of them, but there is a good bit of evidence that they have a protective effect.”- Prof. Ian Hickie.

Experts are now convinced that medication in treating depression is just one of the many alternatives available.

Why talk therapy is a valid alternative

Talk therapy is another possible treatment for depression, with various types that can suit individual needs. The chance to talk about depression without being judged, misunderstood or even criticized cannot be overestimated. It is a great way to approach problems and possible ways of solving them. Most medications can never do that quite as effectively.

Additionally, there is a wide range of supplements and lifestyle changes which can help a patient to maintain balance and prevent relapses. These can range from exercise which helps the brain to rewire itself in positive ways to dietary and mindfulness routines.

Research presents no conclusive results regardging the use of supplements but it seems that fish oil, SAMe and folic acid hold out some promise.

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“There’s promising evidence for certain supplements for depression. But more research needs to be done before we’ll know for sure.” – Dr. Ian Cook, Director of the Depression Research Program at UCLA.

The way forward

Depression is still not fully understood. We know that certain areas of the brain such as the hippocampus are involved, but experts are not sure how they all interlink and what mechanisms are at work.

“Despite intensive research aimed at identifying brain structures linked to depression in recent decades, our understanding of what causes depression is still rudimentary.”- Prof. Jim Lagapoulos, co-author of the research project, Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney.

One thing is certain. We have learned from the research on the hippocampus that lack of treatment or recurring depression are affecting the brain. Processing emotions and memories are at risk. That sends a very clear message — there may be other areas of the brain affected which may have more serious consequences. But this damage is in many cases also reversible.

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This is why we can never ignore depression and always seek treatment when or if it should happen to us or our loved ones.

Featured photo credit: Sigh, Clouds, Rain, Sigh, Iceland via flickr.com

More by this author

Robert Locke

Author of Ziger the Tiger Stories, a health enthusiast specializing in relationships, life improvement and mental health.

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Last Updated on July 5, 2019

5 Reasons Why You Should Always Be Yourself

5 Reasons Why You Should Always Be Yourself

When it comes to being yourself, there can be a lot of pressure from the outside world as it tries to influence who you are. Living in a society that is constantly developing, it’s important for you to always be yourself from the inside out. When you deeply know yourself and the boundaries that you have set, you are more likely to experience a fulfilling and rewarding life. Without knowing yourself and establishing those boundaries, you can easily be pushed around and end up on a dirt path.

“Enter through the narrow gate. For wide is the gate and broad is the road that leads to destruction, and many enter through it. But small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life, and only a few find it” – Matthew 7:13-14

You have the option of taking the path that is broad or taking the path that is narrow. You can either conform to what life wants you to be, or have the courage to remain true to yourself throughout the years. It’s definitely a challenge to have a strong sense of self when we are constantly getting distracted and being influenced by the media and society’s way of life. But if you want to reach your fullest potential in life, it all starts with being yourself.

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Why should you always be yourself?

Because you will:

  1. Live in alignment with your values and beliefs. Being yourself is all about knowing what you believe in and the values that you live by. When you are not yourself, you will take on the values and beliefs of others. This is when you start conforming to other people’s expectations and way of thinking. When you know your values and why you do what you do, you will live according to your own values and beliefs.
  2. Establish your own identity. When you are able to have a solid foundation of being you, you are establishing your own sense of identity. No matter what happens in your life, you will always know who you are. There will be times where you may feel lost or distracted, but if you have your own identity you’ll be able to get back on the right path. Without establishing your own identity, you may easily conform and lose yourself.
  3. Build courage. It takes a great amount of courage when you decide to take the path that goes against the crowd. The reason why the majority of people take the broad path is because it’s easy. It’s easy to just follow the crowd. It’s more of a challenge when you stay true to yourself and establish your own identity. This challenge of always being yourself takes courage and inner strength. No matter what comes your way, you’ll know how to handle it.
  4. Establish boundaries. When you are always yourself, you know what your limits are and the boundaries that you have set for yourself. When people cross your boundaries, you will know. But if you don’t establish boundaries, people may very well walk all over you and take advantage of you. If you are always yourself and you establish boundaries, you are more likely to be aware when people start taking advantage of you. Create and establish your boundaries.
  5. Find focus and direction. When you are always yourself, you are more likely to have focus and direction in your life. Imagine someone who is constantly conforming to other people’s expectations. Do you think this person has focus and direction? I don’t think so. When you stay true to who you are, you are more likely to know the goals you want to accomplish and how to go about accomplishing them. You are able to stay focused and know which direction to take in order for you to accomplish your goals.

No matter what you experience in life, the only person that will always remain constant is you.

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Featured photo credit: María Victoria Heredia Reyes via unsplash.com

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