Advertising
Advertising

How Divorce Affects Children: The Good and the Not So Good

How Divorce Affects Children: The Good and the Not So Good

Wonder how divorce affects children? And how can divorce ever be good for a child?

Divorce can be good if there is emotional, physical, or substance abuse going on in the home. If a divorce can remove the child from an abusive parent, then divorce can be a good thing.

In most cases though, it’s not that simple.

In this article, we will look into the effects divorce has on children, and what parents can do to protect and support their children.

When Is Divorce Good?

Divorce can be good if there is emotional, physical, or substance abuse going on in the home. If a divorce can remove the child from an abusive parent, then divorce can be a good thing.

In most cases though, it’s not that easy.

Sometimes, even when one parent believes abuse is occurring by the other parent, custody is shared equally because of a judge’s decision.

Divorce is complicated and usually icky. It also does not remove the other parent from the situation automatically. It is a difficult road, but if there is abuse and the abuser refuses to change and seek help, then a divorce to protect the child may be wise.

Consider all angles of help and solutions before you head for divorce court though, because a divorce means that you may not have to live in the same household as the other person, but that is not necessarily true for your child.

Think of solutions and ways to get help for your family so you can heal, rather than run from the problem. Because you may indeed be sending your child to a bad situation in which you have zero control. The parent with the abusive problems may not change and you are sending your child to their home without your protection. That’s the unfortunate thing about divorce.

You can divorce the person from yourself, but you can’t always stop their contact with the kids, even if they are abusive. Seek legal help if the abuse is affecting your children and the person refuses to seek help or change. But, be aware that your battle is just beginning. Things may get worse before they get better. Do what is best for the child in the long term.

If you are already divorced, skip down to “The Good News for the Divorced Parents”.

The Good News for the Divorced Parents

If you are the part of the 50% of the population that has gotten divorced, know that you are not alone. Half of all marriages result in divorce. This isn’t the good news.

The good news is that up to 80% of kids exhibit zero negative effects from the divorce of their parents, according to a research study by Michael Lamb.[1]

That means that 20% will have issues when a divorce occurs. There is help and support for those who are a part of that 20%, so there is hope for you and your child.

Just keep reading to learn more and find ways to get the help your child may need.

What is Most Important to a Child of Divorced Parents?

Research, including that by Michael Lamb, shows that what’s most important to a child’s adjustment to divorce are:

  • The quality of the relationships the child has with their parents
  • The quality of the relationship of the parents following the divorce
  • The resources and support provided in the situation

These three factors make a difference on whether your child can be a part of the 80% of the population of children from divorced homes who are able to successfully adjust.

Parent-Child Relationships Following Divorce

When a divorce has occurred, the quality of the relationship between the parent and child will have an enormous impact on how a child copes with the divorce. The way that a parent reacts following a divorce matters.

Advertising

Parents who make the effort to have quality time with their child following a divorce are helping their child adjust to the divorce. Parents who move on with their lives with little regard for their children and the time they spend with them, will likely result in their children having problems adjusting to the divorce.

When maladjustment occurs (which is 20% of the population of children in divorce situations) the most common problems exhibited are (in no particular order):

  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Behavior Problems
  • Anger, angry outburst, problems controlling anger
  • Physical violence toward others
  • Lower grades in school compared to pre-divorce
  • Substance abuse
  • Incarceration
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Feelings of guilt, shame, and blame (thinking the divorce is their fault)
  • Decline in health
  • Social problems

Parents who make the effort to have quality time with their child following a divorce are helping their child adjust to the situation.

Loving your child is not enough when it comes to divorce. Your actions matter. Make the effort to help your child through the divorce by spending quality time with them and fostering a positive parent-child relationship.

An Example of Good Parent-Child Relationships

For example, a child named Kate is 7 years old and is an only child. She has experienced the divorce of her parents. She adjusted to the situation well though.

The parents shared equal custody of Kate and they put in a great deal of effort to provide quality parenting time with Kate. Kate was able to get more one-on-one time and attention from each parent.

When she spent time at her Mom’s home, her Mom made an effort to do weekly cooking with Kate, so they could share the experience together and Kate could learn some cooking skills. Her Mom kept up with Kate’s piano lessons and took her to her scheduled karate classes, as did her Dad.

Both parents sought to spend time with Kate helping her process the divorce while still getting plenty of time and positive attention.

Both parents also maintained good discipline. They did not absolve consequences when she misbehaved because they felt bad about the divorce. Instead, both knew that discipline was important to maintaining Kate’s sense of structure and guidance in their homes.

Their extra efforts made Kate feel loved and cared for following the divorce. She may not have wanted her parents to separate and divorce, but the love, care, and quality time she is getting from both of her parents has helped her transition.

It is the consistency from both parents in providing love, quality time, structure, guidance, and discipline in their homes that has helped Kate adjust well to the divorce.

An Example of a Bad Parent-Child Relationship

Now look at the example of Eric. Eric’s parents divorced when he was 12. He too is an only child. His mother has retained custody and his father has visitation.

Eric goes to visit with his dad every other weekend. His dad has moved in with another woman. With his dad’s focus being on this new woman and that relationship, the visits Eric has with his dad leave him feeling dejected.

He yearns for time and attention from his dad. He is pained that his parents are no longer together and secretly wants them back together. With this new woman taking his dad’s attention, Eric resents this new woman in his dad’s life.

The visits become more and more strained until Eric no longer wants to visit his dad. His dad, feeling that Eric should be able to make the choice for himself about when he should see him, lets him off the hook. He doesn’t put pressure on Eric and their visits become less and less often.

Meanwhile, Eric feels rejected by his dad, who never even tries to convince him to come visit when he cancels. Eric’s relational problem with his dad causes anger to rise in him. He acts out at school more and has gotten into several fights at school.

His mom is doing her best, but she can’t force Eric’s dad to provide the attention that Eric needs. His dad loves him, but the quality of the time they have spent together following the divorce is less than mediocre.

The lack of a quality relationship and time with his dad has led to problems in Eric’s life including uncontrolled anger, resentment, and anxiety.

His adjustment to the divorce has not been good because of the failure on his dad’s part to make an effort to maintain a quality relationship. Eric’s mom is looking to get him in to see a counselor to deal with his anger, resentment, and anxiety.

Advertising

The Relationship Between the Parents Following Divorce

The quality of the relationship between the parents matters too following a divorce. The ability for both individuals to cooperatively parent their child matters greatly and affects the adjustment of their child following a divorce.

If the parents continue to argue, yell, and scream at one another when they interact following a divorce, then the child is going to be affected. It causes anxiety, depression, anger, and sadness (among other things) to have parents who cannot communicate well following a divorce.

Disagreements are likely to happen following a divorce. Parents each have their own household, their own rules, and their own way of doing things. This will lead to disagreements in parenting.

How the disagreements are handled matters. Parents who are divorced must make an extra effort to use good conflict resolution skills. The ability for parents to have civil and kind relationships with their ex using good communication skills makes a difference in their child’s adjustment to divorce.

An Example of Divorced Parents Who Get Along

Pam and Matt got divorced a year ago. While they were married, they argued and yelled a great deal in front of their kids.

Following the divorce, they went to counseling to work on their conflict resolution skills. They have both made an effort to not resort to yelling. They communicate primarily though texts regarding the children and both make and effort to keep the messages kind, about the children, and solution oriented.

They know that they can’t avoid speaking or seeing one another completely if they want their children to adjust to the situation. Therefore, they make an effort when they see one another at baseball games and other activities with the kids that they talk kindly to one another.

They don’t choose to ignore one another. Instead, they keep conversations on a surface level in public and maintain positive interactions in front of the kids.

They had some issues come up with the kid’s schedule and a need for change. Pam wanted to switch their schedule to week on and week off so that her workplace could better accommodate her schedule. The every other day schedule was not working well for her workplace.

Matt instantly balked at the idea of change. However, rather than argue he asked for her reasons and said he would keep an open mind. Matt decided to agree to the schedule change, as it was more than just helping Pam out. It was allowing for Pam to have more time at home with the kids during her scheduled weeks with them. This way, she wouldn’t have to worry about working while the kids were at her home.

Doing what is in the best interest of the kids and getting along together is important to both Pam and Matt. Their efforts to work on having positive conflict resolution skills has helped their children adjust to the divorce.

The kids no longer experience yelling matches between their parents. They are also no longer subjected to public arguments, which the couple had done while they were married.

They maintain positive, kind, and polite communications in public for the sake of their kids and the long term parenting relationship between their ex spouse.

Nobody wins in a situation of divorce, but you can get along. Matt and Pam are an example of a couple who are making the effort to get along for the sake of their kids.

They couldn’t make their marriage work, but they have set up new boundaries and learned better conflict resolution skills that have made their co-parenting relationship work well.

Not only is it working well, but the kids no longer experience the yelling, screaming, and arguing that they had in the past.

An Example of Divorced Parents Who Are Doing It Wrong

Mick and Jane were married for eight years. They have two children together. They both cheated during the marriage. They both have moved on with new relationships.

The cheating and new relationships aren’t the real problem though. The real problem that is affecting the children is how Mick and Jane treat one another in front of the children. The interactions, although few these days, are hostile, angry, and terse. The conversations tend to end with one person walking away because they can’t seem to agree on anything.

The lawyers are making a good deal of money on this situation because Mick and Jane want to go back to court for every issue including who gets the kids at Christmas, what school the kids should attend, should they be allowed to ride the school bus, and should the kids be allowed to spend time at their grandparents.

Advertising

Everything in their kid’s lives becomes a topic of debate. Not only between Mick and Jane, but also between their attorneys. Mick and Jane don’t make any efforts to keep these matters private either. Instead, they put the kids in the middle.

For example, Jane told the kids that she has a trip to Disney World planned for them at Christmas and their dad won’t let them go. In reality that is his scheduled time. However, Jane says it is the only time she was able to get off from work.

The battles are constant. In the mix of it all are two young children, ages 5 and 7. They hear the arguments, they feel the tension, and they are not adjusting well to the divorce. The 5 year old has begun to wet the bed and suck her thumb again. The 7 year old has become sullen and angry. He is acting out at school and at both homes.

The parents blame one another for the problems their children are having, rather than working to help their children. This family is spiraling down into more problems for both children.

They aren’t getting the help they need from their parents or a professional. They are witnessing arguments and battles between parents that they should never experience.

Mick and Jane are an example of parents who are failing at co-parenting. They are both so fixated on themselves and “winning” with their attorneys at the sake of their children. Their children are the ones who will suffer the most.

Children don’t get to re-do their childhood. The pain, anger, and suffering these children are experiencing will not change until their parents change their ways and all of them get the help and counseling they need.

How to Co-Parent Successfully

Parents who can’t get along after a divorce are setting up their children to be a part of the 20% of kids of divorce who don’t adjust well. They will develop problems socially, mentally, and/or physically that can’t be easily fixed.

The worse the co-parenting relationship, the worse it is for the kids. Parents and their ability to co-parent healthily matters to their kids mental, physical, and social well-being now and into the future.

If you are divorced and have issues co-parenting, read the article Coparenting 101: 17 Helpful Strategies for Divorced Parents. You will find tips on how to start co-parenting more successfully starting today.

If you struggle to get along with your ex, find a counselor or mediator who can help you develop a better co-parent relationship.

Resources & Support for Divorced Parents

The parent-child and parent-parent relationships following divorce affect a child and their adjustment to life and their new situation. These two factors are the most important when it comes to children surviving divorce successfully and adjusting in a healthy manner.

The third component that affects children and their adjustment to a divorce is the support provided in their situation. This is the support outside of their parents. Are the kids getting the counseling that they need? Every child who goes through the divorce of their parents should get help from a counselor, support group, or professional trained to assist children in adjusting to divorce.

Divorce Care 4 Kids is an organization that hosts groups all around the world for kids who experience the divorce of their parents. These groups are low cost and often free. The classes are typically 13 weeks total, meeting once a week. The groups help children adjust to divorce and address such topics as the divorce not being the child’s fault, emotions they may be feeling, and how to communicate with their parents about the divorce.

Go to their website and type in your zip code or country (if outside of the United States) to find a group near you. Your child did not ask for the divorce. Get them the help that they need to help them process and adjust to the situation.

Other support that matters to kids and can help them adjust to the situation is extended family and friends. Their support, kindness, and love in your situation is also helping your child. They need the support, emotionally, physically, and mentally, as much as you do.

Reach out for support from your loved ones. Not everyone will likely be helpful, but for those that are helpful embrace their help and thank them. Not only are they helping you, but they are also helping your child.

Check out my other article on this topic: How to Raise Happy, Healthy Kids After Going Through a Divorce for more tips and info on how to help your child adjust following divorce.

Bonus: Things to Consider Before Getting a Divorce

According to The Institute for Family Studies, which studied 2,000 divorced couples, the top three reasons that people divorce are:[2]

Advertising

  • A lack of commitment
  • Too much conflict or arguing
  • Infidelity or extramarital affairs

In reality, abuse being named as the cause for divorce is a small percentage.

If the reason is lack of commitment in your situation, then seek some help. Don’t give up on the marriage.

Seek Professional Help from a Marriage Counselor

Read “Everything You Need to Know Before Visiting a Marriage Counselor” for help in your search of a marital counselor.

Seek professional help before you seek out a divorce attorney. You may be saving a relationship and a family at the same time.

When the reason for divorce is arguing, many couples believe that getting divorced will help the children because they will be exposed to less arguing. The constant yelling, screaming, and arguments can cease with a divorce.

However, has healing or resolution really occurred? You may be teaching your child that rather than work through a tough situation, you leave.

Improve Your Conflict Resolution Skills

Who is to say you are going to get along better after a divorce? Are your conflict resolution skills going to magically improve when you get a divorce? What about the idea of working on your conflict resolutions skills before you pursue a divorce?

The problem is not the arguing. The problem is your conflict resolution skills.

You can have disagreements. Those are normal in any relationship. How you handle the disagreement is what is most important. It is important to you, your spouse, and your children witnessing the disagreement that good conflict resolution skills are practiced in your household.

If you can learn healthy conflict resolution skills for your marriage, you can become an example to your child of how to handle disagreements in a healthy manner. You may also be saving your marriage at the same time.

Check out this article for practical tips on conflict resolution: The Secret to Effective Conflict Resolution: The IBR Approach

Again, if you can’t seem to develop these skills alone or as a couple, then seek professional help from a marriage counselor.

Conclusion

There are no guarantees that your child will survive your divorce unscathed. However, 80% of all kids are able to adjust to divorce without any major problems. For the 20%, there is help available.

Professional help is imperative. What also will help your child are the two most important factors following a divorce: healthy co-parenting relationships and quality time with parent-child. Your job as a parent is to get along with your ex for the sake of your child.

If you struggle to find common ground, then involve a mediator and keep communications to a minimum outside of the mediator. Also, work to develop better conflict resolution skills to facilitate a better co-parenting relationship long term.

Your relationship with your child following the divorce matters. Making the effort to spend quality time with your child is important. It will affect your child’s ability to adjust to divorce.

Do everything you can to foster a healthy, happy, and functional relationship with your child. Not only for their sake and their development, but also for the sake of your long term relationship with them.

Featured photo credit: Annie Spratt via unsplash.com

Reference

More by this author

Dr. Magdalena Battles

A Doctor of Psychology with specialties include children, family relationships, domestic violence, and sexual assault

Signs of Depression in Children (And How to Help Them to Overcome It) 15 Ways to Practice Positive Self-Talk for Success Why Self-Compassion Is More Important Than Self-Esteem How to Cope with Negativity When Disasters Happen 7 Reasons Why You Should Find a Life Coach to Reach Your Full Potential

Trending in Social Animal

1 How to Use the Law of Reciprocity for Effective Persuasion 2 What Will Happen When You Surround Yourself With Positive People? 3 How to Surround Yourself With Positive People 4 How to Create Social Goals to Make an Impact in the World 5 The Lifehack Show: Improving Social Skills with Dr. Daniel Wendler

Read Next

Advertising
Advertising
Advertising

Last Updated on January 15, 2021

7 Ways To Have More Confident Body Language

7 Ways To Have More Confident Body Language

The popular idiomatic saying that “actions speak louder than words” has been around for centuries, but even to this day, most people struggle with at least one area of nonverbal communication. Consequently, many of us aspire to have more confident body language but don’t have the knowledge and tools necessary to change what are largely unconscious behaviors.

Given that others’ perceptions of our competence and confidence are predominantly influenced by what we do with our faces and bodies, it’s important to develop greater self-awareness and consciously practice better posture, stance, eye contact, facial expressions, hand movements, and other aspects of body language.

Posture

First things first: how is your posture? Let’s start with a quick self-assessment of your body.

  • Are your shoulders slumped over or rolled back in an upright posture?
  • When you stand up, do you evenly distribute your weight or lean excessively to one side?
  • Does your natural stance place your feet relatively shoulder-width apart or are your feet and legs close together in a closed-off position?
  • When you sit, does your lower back protrude out in a slumped position or maintain a straight, spine-friendly posture in your seat?

All of these are important considerations to make when evaluating and improving your posture and stance, which will lead to more confident body language over time. If you routinely struggle with maintaining good posture, consider buying a posture trainer/corrector, consulting a chiropractor or physical therapist, stretching daily, and strengthening both your core and back muscles.

Facial Expressions

Are you prone to any of the following in personal or professional settings?

  • Bruxism (tight, clenched jaw or grinding teeth)
  • Frowning and/or furrowing brows
  • Avoiding direct eye contact and/or staring at the ground

If you answered “yes” to any of these, then let’s start by examining various ways in which you can project confident body language through your facial expressions.

Advertising

1. Understand How Others Perceive Your Facial Expressions

A December 2020 study by UC Berkeley and Google researchers utilized a deep neural network to analyze facial expressions in six million YouTube clips representing people from over 140 countries. The study found that, despite socio-cultural differences, people around the world tended to use about 70% of the same facial expressions in response to different emotional stimuli and situations.[1]

The study’s researchers also published a fascinating interactive map to demonstrate how their machine learning technology assessed various facial expressions and determined subtle differences in emotional responses.

This study highlights the social importance of facial expressions because whether or not we’re consciously aware of them—by gazing into a mirror or your screen on a video conferencing platform—how we present our faces to others can have tremendous impacts on their perceptions of us, our confidence, and our emotional states. This awareness is the essential first step towards

2. Relax Your Face

New research on bruxism and facial tension found the stresses and anxieties of Covid-19 lockdowns led to considerable increases in orofacial pain, jaw-clenching, and teeth grinding, particularly among women.[2]

The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research estimates that more than 10 million Americans alone have temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ syndrome), and facial tension can lead to other complications such as insomnia, wrinkles, dry skin, and dark, puffy bags under your eyes.[3])

To avoid these unpleasant outcomes, start practicing progressive muscle relaxation techniques and taking breaks more frequently throughout the day to moderate facial tension.[4] You should also try out some biofeedback techniques to enhance your awareness of involuntary bodily processes like facial tension and achieve more confident body language as a result.[5]

Advertising

3. Improve Your Eye Contact

Did you know there’s an entire subfield of kinesic communication research dedicated to eye movements and behaviors called oculesics?[6] It refers to various communication behaviors including direct eye contact, averting one’s gaze, pupil dilation/constriction, and even frequency of blinking. All of these qualities can shape how other people perceive you, which means that eye contact is yet another area of nonverbal body language that we should be more mindful of in social interactions.

The ideal type (direct/indirect) and duration of eye contact depends on a variety of factors, such as cultural setting, differences in power/authority/age between the parties involved, and communication context. Research has shown that differences in the effects of eye contact are particularly prominent when comparing East Asian and Western European/North American cultures.[7]

To improve your eye contact with others, strive to maintain consistent contact for at least 3 to 4 seconds at a time, consciously consider where you’re looking while listening to someone else, and practice eye contact as much as possible (as strange as this may seem in the beginning, it’s the best way to improve).

3. Smile More

There are many benefits to smiling and laughing, and when it comes to working on more confident body language, this is an area that should be fun, low-stakes, and relatively stress-free.

Smiling is associated with the “happiness chemical” dopamine and the mood-stabilizing hormone, serotonin. Many empirical studies have shown that smiling generally leads to positive outcomes for the person smiling, and further research has shown that smiling can influence listeners’ perceptions of our confidence and trustworthiness as well.

4. Hand Gestures

Similar to facial expressions and posture, what you do with your hands while speaking or listening in a conversation can significantly influence others’ perceptions of you in positive or negative ways.

Advertising

It’s undoubtedly challenging to consciously account for all of your nonverbal signals while simultaneously trying to stay engaged with the verbal part of the discussion, but putting in the effort to develop more bodily awareness now will make it much easier to unconsciously project more confident body language later on.

5. Enhance Your Handshake

In the article, “An Anthropology of the Handshake,” University of Copenhagen social anthropology professor Bjarke Oxlund assessed the future of handshaking in wake of the Covid-19 pandemic:[8]

“Handshakes not only vary in function and meaning but do so according to social context, situation and scale. . . a public discussion should ensue on the advantages and disadvantages of holding on to the tradition of shaking hands as the conventional gesture of greeting and leave-taking in a variety of circumstances.”

It’s too early to determine some of the ways in which Covid-19 has permanently changed our social norms and professional etiquette standards, but it’s reasonable to assume that handshaking may retain its importance in American society even after this pandemic. To practice more confident body language in the meantime, the video on the science of the perfect handshake below explains what you need to know.

6. Complement Your Verbals With Hand Gestures

As you know by now, confident communication involves so much more than simply smiling more or sounding like you know what you’re talking about. What you do with your hands can be particularly influential in how others perceive you, whether you’re fidgeting with an object, clenching your fists, hiding your hands in your pockets, or calmly gesturing to emphasize important points you’re discussing.

Social psychology researchers have found that “iconic gestures”—hand movements that appear to be meaningfully related to the speaker’s verbal content—can have profound impacts on listeners’ information retention. In other words, people are more likely to engage with you and remember more of what you said when you speak with complementary hand gestures instead of just your voice.[9]

Advertising

Further research on hand gestures has shown that even your choice of the left or right hand for gesturing can influence your ability to clearly convey information to listeners, which supports the notion that more confident body language is readily achievable through greater self-awareness and deliberate nonverbal actions.[10]

Final Takeaways

Developing better posture, enhancing your facial expressiveness, and practicing hand gestures can vastly improve your communication with other people. At first, it will be challenging to consciously practice nonverbal behaviors that many of us are accustomed to performing daily without thinking about them.

If you ever feel discouraged, however, remember that there’s no downside to consistently putting in just a little more time and effort to increase your bodily awareness. With the tips and strategies above, you’ll be well on your way to embracing more confident body language and amplifying others’ perceptions of you in no time.

More Tips on How to Develop a Confident Body Language

Featured photo credit: Maria Lupan via unsplash.com

Reference

Read Next