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How Much Do Newborn Sleep?

How Much Do Newborn Sleep?

For adults, a seven to nine-hour sleep is recommended by the experts to help our body get the rest it needs for a long day’s work. Sleep is a natural mechanism our bodies do to recharge for the next day. Babies, however, have very different and fascinating sleeping patterns.

What are the typical sleep patterns for newborn?

Newborns are believed to sleep in short bouts –about an estimated 30 minutes to 4 hours throughout day and night. Most parents end up being sleep deprived by their baby’s sleeping pattern as babies in their first years are “active sleepers”. This means that they tend to easily awaken since their sleep are characterized by fluttering eyelids, sporadic movements, brief grunts or crying and irregular, rapid breathing.

Surprisingly, one study showed that babies vary greatly in the amount of time they sleep. In the first few days, babies sleep between 16-18 hours a day and by the fourth week, newborns sleep about 14 hours. Although this may fluctuate as some four-week-olds sleep as little as 9 to 19 hours a day. If you, on the other hand, have any concerns about your child’s sleeping habit, you may discuss it with your medical provider.

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Why newborn sleep patterns are unpredictable?

Our sleeping pattern as adults is governed by circadian rhythms -physiological changes that follow a 24-hour cycle. This is influenced by the exposure of light. You might ask, “What does it have to do with my baby’s sleeping pattern?” During pregnancy, your body is the one setting up this rhythm in the baby in your womb. The baby’s heartbeat and respiratory rate speeds up when mom is active and slows down when she is sleeping. Yet after birth, this connection is broken and your baby must rely on his or her own circadian rhythm which isn’t as strong as when he or she is older –since his or her body is still yet to develop his or her productions of cortisol (hormone for alertness) and melatonin (hormone for drowsiness).

So, your baby’s sleeping pattern is shaped by the length of time of his or her feeding, digesting and being hungry again. For most newborns, this means feeding every few hours and sleep episodes are brief and spaced in fairly regular intervals around the clock.

When your baby will start to sleep longer

Studies show that most infants take about 12 weeks to show day-night rhythms. By 3-5 months time, they are now able to sleep up to a 5-hour stretch. Studies show that circadian rhythms begin developing in the first days after birth. However, scientific evidence suggests that even newborns are receptive to environmental cues about time. You can take advantage of this fact to help shape newborn sleep patterns.

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How to help babies adapt to the 24-hour day:

Do things with your baby as a daily routine.

Researchers say that when mothers include their newborns in their daily activities, newborn sleep patterns adapt more rapidly to the 24-hour day.

Minimize stimulation at night. 

Avoid making noises and moving your baby around as this may wake him or her up completely.

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Has your baby exposed to natural light?

Sunlight is your best friend. It is found out that babies being exposed to natural light have easily adapted to the 24-hour cycle than those who have not. Also, babies who get outside developed faster and stronger circadian rhythms.

Do infant massage.

One study reports that newborns who received 14 days of massage therapy (beginning when they were about 10 days old) showed more mature sleep patterns in later weeks.

Keep track of the time of day you extract and store breast milk for future use.

Breast milk contains tryptophan, an amino acid that is used by the body to manufacture melatonin. Tryptophan levels rise and fall according to maternal circadian rhythms, and when infants consume tryptophan before bedtime, they fall asleep faster. It is, therefore, possible that breastfeeding helps newborn sleep patterns synchronize with the 24-hour day.

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Featured photo credit: Omer Unlu via flickr.com

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Published on January 30, 2019

How to Support a Working Mother as a Working Father

How to Support a Working Mother as a Working Father

In roughly 60 percent of two-parent households with children under the age of 18, both parents work full time. But who takes time off work when the kids are sick in your house? And if you are a manager, how do you react when a man says he needs time to take his baby to the pediatrician?

The sad truth is, the default in many companies and families is to value the man’s work over the woman’s—even when there is no significant difference in their professional obligations or compensation. This translates into stereotypes in the workplace that women are the primary caregivers, which can negatively impact women’s success on the job and their upward mobility.

According to a Pew Research Center analysis of long-term time-use data (1965–2011), fathers in dual-income couples devote significantly less time than mothers do to child care.[1] Dads are doing more than twice as much housework as they used to (from an average of about four hours per week to about 10 hours), but there is still a significant imbalance.

This is not just an issue between spouses; it’s a workplace culture issue. In many offices, it is still taboo for dads to openly express that they have family obligations that need their attention. In contrast, the assumption that moms will be on the front lines of any family crisis is one that runs deep.

Consider an example from my company. A few years back, one of our team members joined us for an off-site meeting soon after returning from maternity leave. Not even two hours into her trip, her husband called to say that the baby had been crying nonstop. While there was little our colleague could practically do to help with the situation, this call was clearly unsettling, and the result was that her attention was divided for the rest of an important business dinner.

This was her first night away since the baby’s birth, and I know that her spouse had already been on several business trips before this event. Yet, I doubt she called him during his conferences to ask child-care questions. Like so many moms everywhere, she was expected to figure things out on her own.

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The numbers show that this story is far from the exception. In another Pew survey, 47 percent of dual-income parents agreed that the moms take on more of the work when a child gets sick.[2] In addition, 39 percent of working mothers said they had taken a significant amount of time off from work to care for their child compared to just 24 percent of working fathers. Mothers are also more likely than fathers (27 percent to 10 percent) to say they had quit their job at some point for family reasons.

Before any amazing stay-at-home-dads post an angry rebuttal comment, I want to be very clear that I am not judging how families choose to divide and conquer their personal and professional responsibilities; that’s 100 percent their prerogative. Rather, I am taking aim at the culture of inequity that persists even when spouses have similar or identical professional responsibilities. This is an important issue for all of us because we are leaving untapped business and human potential on the table.

What’s more, I think my fellow men can do a lot about this. For those out there who still privately think that being a good dad just means helping out mom, it’s time to man up. Stop expecting working partners—who have similar professional responsibilities—to bear the majority of the child-care responsibilities as well.

Consider these ways to support your working spouse:

1. Have higher expectations for yourself as a father; you are a parent, not a babysitter.

Know who your pediatrician is and how to reach him or her. Have a back-up plan for transportation and emergency coverage.

Don’t simply expect your partner to manage all these invisible tasks on her own. Parenting takes effort and preparation for the unexpected.

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As in other areas of life, the way to build confidence is to learn by doing. Moms aren’t born knowing how to do this stuff any more than dads are.

2. Treat your partner the way you’d want to be treated.

I can’t tell you the number of times I’ve heard a man on a business trip say to his wife on a call something to the effect of, “I am in the middle of a meeting. What do you want me to do about it?”

However, when the tables are turned, men often make that same call at the first sign of trouble.

Distractions like this make it difficult to focus and engage with work, which perpetuates the stereotype that working moms aren’t sufficiently committed.

When you’re in charge of the kids, do what she would do: Figure it out.

3. When you need to take care of your kids, don’t make an excuse that revolves around your partner’s availability.

This implies that the children are her first priority and your second.

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I admit I have been guilty in the past of telling clients, “I have the kids today because my wife had something she could not move.” What I should have said was, “I’m taking care of my kids today.”

Why is it so hard for men to admit they have personal responsibilities? Remember that you are setting an example for your sons and daughters, and do the right thing.

4. As a manager, be supportive of both your male and female colleagues when unexpected situations arise at home.

No one likes or wants disruptions, but life happens, and everyone will face a day when the troubling phone call comes from his sitter, her school nurse, or even elderly parents.

Accommodating personal needs is not a sign of weakness as a leader. Employees will be more likely to do great work if they know that you care about their personal obligations and family—and show them that you care about your own.

5. Don’t keep score or track time.

At home, it’s juvenile to get into debates about who last changed a diaper or did the dishes; everyone needs to contribute, but the big picture is what matters. Is everyone healthy and getting enough sleep? Are you enjoying each other’s company?

In business, too, avoid the trap of punching a clock. The focus should be on outcomes and performance rather than effort and inputs. That’s the way to maintain momentum toward overall goals.

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The Bottom Line

To be clear, I recognize that a great many working dads are doing a terrific job both on the home front and in their professional lives. My concern is that these standouts often aren’t visible to their colleagues; they intentionally or inadvertently let their work as parents fly under the radar. Dads need to be open and honest about family responsibilities to change perceptions in the workplace.

The question “How do you balance it all?” should not be something that’s just asked of women. Frankly, no one can answer that question. Juggling a career and parental responsibilities is tough. At times, really tough.

But it’s something that more parents should be doing together, as a team. This can be a real bonus for the couple relationship as well, because nothing gets in the way of good partnership faster than feelings of inequity.

On the plus side, I can tell you that parenting skills really do get better with practice—and that’s great for people of both sexes. I think our cultural expectations that women are the “nurturers” and men are the “providers” needs to evolve. Expanding these definitions will open the doors to richer contributions from everyone, because women can and should be both—and so should men.

Featured photo credit: NeONBRAND via unsplash.com

Reference

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