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5 Reasons IBS is Psychological

5 Reasons IBS is Psychological

While functional disorders including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) can have serious physiological symptoms, they seem to have no biological cause. Those with IBS tend to exhibit distinct patterns of thinking, which seem to contribute to the disorder. A common explanation for IBS comes from Deary, Chalder, and Sharpe and points to a vicious circle linking symptoms to catastrophic belief to heightened anxiety which reinforce perception of symptoms and strengthens this cognitive process. Research has shown that altering thinking patterns in IBS patients can also alter the symptoms. Here are 5 psychological features of IBS and tips on reducing them.

1. Attentional bias to pain

Martin and Chapman found people with IBS orient to pain words faster than neutral words while healthy controls orient to neutral words faster than pain words. This suggest that people with IBS find pain more salient, but it is unclear whether this causes the disease or is an effect.
Tip: Try to actively seek out positive stimuli (such as smiling faces) and train your mind to make the positive aspects more salient.

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2. Illness schema

A diary study giving different prompts on different days found that the cues influenced the severity of IBS symptoms (Martin & Crane; 2003). Cues were designed to draw attention to IBS symptoms, neutral aspects of the condition (i.e time of doctor appointments), or leisure activities. Patients’ symptom severity significantly increased on days with IBS context cues and decreased for neutral cues.
Tip: If changing focus can change symptoms, try doing things to distract you from the illness.

3. Heightened illness vulnerability

While those with IBS develop sensitivity for GI symptoms, they also interestingly feel more vulnerable to other physical illnesses completely unrelated to IBS. A study comparing perceived lifetime risk of deep vein thrombosis of those with IBS to those with asthma (chronic illness control) and healthy controls, found people with IBS had the greatest perception of risk of illness (Martin & Crane; 2002).
Tip: Try to think of likely, common causes of a pain and eliminate that possibility before jumping to conclusions of a more serious, less likely illness.

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4. Learned illness behaviors

Illness behaviors vary widely among people and include things like taking time from work and activities, eating special foods, and other unique things people do when sick. These behaviors are higher in those with functional disorders and research has found that greater parental reinforcement of this behavior during childhood leads to lower perceived resistance to illness in adulthood (Martin & Crane; 2002).
Tip: Try not to alter your behavior significantly when you feel symptoms. Since there isn’t much that will help with chronic illnesses, it may be best to continue with your normal routine if possible. (Obviously if symptoms are severe, it’s important to take proper care)

5. Comorbid conditions

About 50% of IBS patients also suffer from another psychiatric disorder, while those with inflammatory bowel disease are no more likely than the rest of the population to have a psychiatric disorder. This link specifically between IBS and psychiatric illnesses suggests psychotherapy could offer a solution to alleviate both IBS symptoms and other distressing illnesses possibly contributing.
Tip: If your condition is comorbid, cognitive behavioral therapy could be a good place to start since the illnesses could be amplifying one another.

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These psychological factors are not meant to discount the serious nature of functional disorders; rather, they should be encouraging treatment through psychotherapy since traditional methods have shown little success.

Sources:
1. Deary, V. Chalder, T. & Sharpe, M. (2007). The cognitive behavioral model of medically unexplained symptoms: A theoretical and empirical review.
2. European Journal of Pain, 14,207–213.
3. Chapman, S.C.E. & Martin, M. (2011). Attention to pain words in irritable bowel syndrome: Increased orienting and speeded engagement. British Journal of Health Psychology, 16, 47-60.
4. Crane, C. & Martin, M. (2003). Illness schema and level of reported gastrointestinal symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27,185 – 203.
5. Crane, C. & Martin, M. (2002). Perceived vulnerability to illness in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 1115-1122.
6. Crane, C. & Martin, M. (2002). Adult illness behavior: the impact of childhood experience. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 785-798.

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Last Updated on July 8, 2020

18 Benefits of Journaling That Will Change Your Life

18 Benefits of Journaling That Will Change Your Life

The act of writing in a journal often seems daunting or unnecessary to many people. Even authors who work on novels might shun the idea of daily diaries. What purpose does jotting down words on a regular basis do if not contributing to the next novel, play or song? I know from experience many benefits of journaling that I wish to share.

1. Understand Yourself Better

Though many people and even writers avoid keeping journals, I vow to do it more often. Not only do I desire to take up daily journaling but also I plan to do it with pen to paper.

Some of the benefits I’ve found from my more active days include finding myself in the sense of understanding what matters to me and what I want out of life. I’ve been incredibly fortunate to find a spouse who is my best friend and advocate in raising children. I attribute this and much more to what I learned about myself in keeping journals for years.

2. Keep Track of Small Changes

I’ll admit that I never got very far with my guitar lessons, but in writing in a journal, I have seen the ability to track small changes like those that come when you practice anything.

Those learning a musical instrument often fail to see the small improvements that come with regular practice. Writing won’t help you switch chords any faster, but it will help you to develop a better sense for language and grammar just by doing it.

3. Become Aware of What Matters

As you continue to write in a journal, following a stream-of-consciousness feel, you can look back on the topics that you chose to write about. Those issues and emotions that poured out of you will provide insight on to what matters most to you.

You may not even realize that you’re job is depressing you or that you want to spend more time with your kids until you look over your thoughts that you weren’t really thinking about.

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4. Boost Creativity

The idea that the brain and its neural activity across hemispheres encourages learning also shows up in increased creativity. Just like with learning an instrument, your increased activity will inspire your thoughts to connect and reconnect in different ways.

When I wrote in a journal, I often wrote poetry as well as just my thoughts as they came out. I started to hear poems more in my mind; so much so that I took to scrawling lines on napkins and finding metaphors in mundane activities.

You really are what you do, so writing helps grow more than being a writer. Writing boosts the way you communicate and structure language, which really is a creative process.

5. Represents Your Emotions in a Safe Environment

A journal is as private as it gets. You can lock it in a safe or tuck it under a pillow and no one will accidentally share it on social media or have an opportunity to “leave a comment.”

Write about your sorrow as much as your happiness and frustration and know that you don’t have to keep your emotions inside your body. You can put them on paper.

6. Process Life Experiences

When you take the time to look back over what you’ve written, be it a week or a year later, you will have the distance you need to more objectively interpret your raw feelings.

Everything from losing a job to losing a loved one can emerge in a new light for a fresh perspective. Figuring out how the benefits of journaling affect your perspective on life will create connection and increase creativity.

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7. Stress Relief

In combining the exercise inherent in fine motor coordination that comes from the act of writing with the emotional release of self expression, those who maintain a journal relieve stress.

Try it out. Go home and write about your day. Write about the traffic. Write about the coffee order the barista got wrong but you didn’t have time to change. See how you can physically purge some of that pent-up stress by putting it on paper.

8. Provide Direction

Though journaling is often conducted as an activity without much direction, it often provides direction.

One of the biggest benefits of journaling is that your chaotic thoughts merge to show a direction in which to head. Asking the right questions is the only way to achieve the best solutions, so look to your journal to find your way toward your next goal.

9. Solve Problems

Just as in practicing math problems, we all get better at finding hidden solutions through the act of processing.

Think of your next goal as X and solve your life problems by reading your journals as word problems. The benefit of journaling here is that you write, explore and process to recognize and then solve problems.

When life is too in-your-face, you have to step back to see reality. Living in the moment allows us to write in the moment and use that expression to solve problems.

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10. Find Relief From Fighting

Solving your problems only comes after time to process, recognize and strategize. Just as in the benefit of journaling where relief comes from the act of writing, relief from fighting comes when you decide to “sit this one out” and communicate one-way.

Fighting is only productive when the fighters care to communicate and find common ground. When the emotions are as high as the stress levels, writing will function as the best time out.

11. Find Meaning in Life

Journaling will show you why you are living, whether you are wallowing in things you wish to change or striving to make the changes. Your life will begin to take on new meaning and your own words will reveal the actions that got you where you are so that you can assess and pave a new path for your future.

12. Allow Yourself to Focus

Taking even a small amount of time out of every day will provide you with not only peace of mind but also increased focus. Taking a break to meditate in writing and journaling will sharpen your mental faculties.

13. Sharpen Your Spirituality

When we write, we allow all the energy and experiences to flow through us, which often provides further insight into our own spirituality. Even if your parents didn’t raise you to follow a specific religion, your thoughts will start to show you what you believe about the universe and your place in it.

14. Let the Past Go

I’ve mentioned a few examples where going back over your writing offers advice and direction, but the simply truth is that writing down our feelings can be the best way to let them go. We can choose to literally throw these pages away when they’re filled with negativity and hate.

15. Allow Freedom

Journaling is the perfect way to not only express yourself but to also experience the freedom of being who you are. Your books can stay private or you can publish them. Your freedom stems from your sense of self and your perception of your thoughts.

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16. Enhance Your Career

Again, the private act of pen-to-paper processing provides the benefits of journaling mentioned above, but you can also enhance your career when you take similar ideas and categorize, edit and publish them in an online blog.

Your thoughts will often be personal and express emotions, but another benefit of journaling is uncovering fresh ideas about your work.

17. Literally Explore Your Dreams

All the benefits I’ve mentioned explore ideas, thoughts and emotions, which is also what our dreams and nightmares do. Through writing down your dreams from the previous night, you can enhance your creativity as well as connect some of the metaphorical dots from the rest of your journal.

18. Catalog Your Life for Others

No one wants to think about dying, but we all die. Leaving a journal will act as a way to reconnect with family and friends left behind. The ideas you wish to keep personal while you process the life you’re living will serve to rekindle and inspire those who loved you through the process.

We consider our partners our life witnesses, but writing provides a tangible mark on the world.

Now that you’ve learned all the benefits of journaling, it’s time to start writing a journal:

Featured photo credit: Kelly Sikkema via unsplash.com

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