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Published on December 23, 2021

Why Am I So Sleepy And How to Stop Feeling Tired?

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Why Am I So Sleepy And How to Stop Feeling Tired?

There may be several reasons why you are constantly tired and feeling sleepy or lacking in energy. The problem is so common that the U.K.’s National Health Service (NHS) has given an acronym to this condition: TATT, which means “tired all the time.”[1]

As most of us juggle our commitments at work, home, and relationships, we might be able to attribute our burnout to a fast-paced lifestyle. If you’re constantly feeling tired and anxious, it could not only affect your quality of life but might also indicate underlying medical problems.

Causes of Constant Sleepiness and Tiredness

If you’re waking up feeling sleepy and tired, some possible reasons include chronic fatigue syndrome, sleep quality and quantity, diet, and medical issues.

1. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), also known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), comes on quickly and strongly as its symptoms can last for at least six months. The exact cause is unknown. CFS can be accompanied by the inability to focus, weakness, headache, muscle, and joint pains, and tender lymph nodes.[2]

2. Sleep Quality and Quantity

One in three Americans don’t get enough sleep, according to research conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.[3] You could be waking up a lot at night, which affects your sleep quality. The reasons could vary from insomnia to menopause to external factors like noise.

When you sleep too much, it disrupts your body’s circadian pacemaker, which is the group of cells in your brain that control your body’s rhythm. The pacemaker is triggered by the light signals from your eye, indicating it’s daytime and the time to wake up.[4] When you sleep too much or go back to sleep after the alarm clock rings, the pacemaker is thrown off its schedule, and you wake up tired and feeling it all day long.

If you’ve been sleeping during the night and still waking up tired and sleepy, the cause may be sleep apnea.[5] It is a condition where your throat relaxes and narrows, and you have intermittent pauses in breathing during your sleep.[6] This condition prevents you from going into the deeper phases of sleeping, such as the REM stage, and you wake up feeling tired.

Sleep apnea is usually accompanied by snoring and a reduction in your blood’s oxygen levels. It can lead to serious conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. So, if you are concerned that you may have sleep apnea, consult your physician to evaluate the need for a sleep study.

3. Nutrition and Exercise

If you feel tired even after your meals, your diet could be the problem. You might be suffering from several nutritional deficiencies because of an unbalanced diet that leads to tiredness. Lack of deep sleep and low energy levels can be traced back to deficiencies in magnesium, iron, vitamin D, and vitamin B12.[7]

For example, fatigue is one of the first signs of a B12 deficiency. Magnesium is needed to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an essential component for energy production. Low magnesium levels are linked to sleep problems as well.

Dehydration could be another possible reason for your tiredness.[8] Check your daily water intake as consuming less water can make you feel tired. Also, check your daily tea or coffee intake. Caffeine can stay in your body for several hours and affect your night sleep.

When you exercise too much, it can lead you to feel tired for days, and even weeks if you don’t recover from it soon. It’s important to nourish your body before and after exercising and schedule rest days.

4. Medical Issues

Health problems can make you feel sleepy and constantly tired. Here are some common medical reasons why you might be tired all the time.[9]

Anemia and Haemochromatosis

Iron or folate deficiency anemia is a common medical reason for heaviness in your muscles, loss of interest, and fatigue.

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Your body uses iron to make two kinds of proteins: hemoglobin, which carries oxygen from the lungs to the other parts of the body, and myoglobin, which carries oxygen to the muscles.[10] An iron deficiency means the lack of these two vital proteins and makes it harder for oxygen to reach the muscles and tissues in your body. It puts extra strain on your heart to circulate the blood around your body, making you feel weak and tired.

Pregnant and nursing women and those who have periods are prone to iron deficiency anemia. But iron deficiency anemia can also affect men and postmenopausal women when it is connected to stomach and intestinal problems.[11]

If you have excess iron in your body, you could be having a rare genetic disorder called hemochromatosis that can be the cause of your tiredness.[12]

Thyroid Disease

Your thyroid gland is found in the front of your neck and produces thyroxine hormones that regulate your metabolism. When there is an imbalance in these hormones, it can play havoc with your body, causing you to feel constantly fatigued.

An excess of thyroid hormone that causes your metabolism to speed up is called hyperthyroidism.[13]) A deficiency of thyroid hormone that causes your metabolism to slow down is called hypothyroidism.[14] Both these conditions can cause fatigue.

Diabetes

Glucose sugar is fuel for our body. People with diabetes cannot effectively use glucose as it builds up in their blood. Tiredness is one of the first warning signs of diabetes.[15]

Glandular Fever

Glandular fever is a common viral infection that affects mostly teenagers and young adults, and it causes fatigue. While its other symptoms usually clear up within four to six weeks, fatigue can linger for several more months.[16]

Coeliac Disease

Coeliac disease is a lifelong gluten-related disease that affects the immune system and is characterized by tiredness.

Restless Legs Syndrome

If you have restless leg syndrome, you may experience a crawling sensation or pain and an overpowering sensation to move your legs that keep you awake at night. It may leave you feeling sleepy and tired during the day.

Anxiety and Depression

Experiencing anxiety is usually normal. However, if you experience constant, intense feelings of anxiety that get in the normal functioning of your daily life, you could be suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). You may feel tired often if you experience GAD.[17]

Depression is more than just sadness. It is a major illness that affects your daily life. The symptoms can last for years if left untreated. Among other symptoms, sleeplessness and constant tiredness are characteristic of depression.[18]

Other medical conditions, such as low blood pressure and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), could be the reason for your tiredness.[19][20] There are certain medications like antihistamines that may be the reason for your constant sleepiness and tiredness.

How to Stop Feeling Sleepy and Tired

If you’re constantly feeling sleepy and tired, it’s time to listen to your body and take action. We list our top suggestions to help you beat fatigue and stay energized all day long.

1. Maintain a Journal

Writing down how you feel is the first step towards gaining control of your life. Write every minute detail, including how you feel when you wake up, what you eat and drink, your current sleep schedule, and other relevant details.

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Soon, you may start connecting the dots and find the missing links. You may find out what is draining your energy and why.

2. Adopt Sleep Hygiene

A common reason for constantly feeling so sleepy and tired is poor sleep hygiene. Sleep hygiene refers to the set of practices you need to follow to maintain the ideal conditions that support a good night’s sleep.[21]

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends adults get at least seven hours of sleep at night.[22] However, one in three Americans is not getting the recommended seven to nine hours of daily night sleep.[23]

Here are my suggestions for good sleep hygiene practices:

Have a Consistent Sleep Schedule

Adults need bedtime routines as well. So, aim to go to bed and wake up at the same time every day. If you’re not getting the recommended sleep hours, it’s time to sneak in a few extra hours to get back on track so you can feel alert and energetic all day.

Even if you manage to sneak in an extra 30 minutes each day consistently over time, it can make you feel much better than you previously did. If you have a sleep debt, it will take time for your body to align completely with the new schedule, and get back on the right track.

Taking power naps in the afternoon for around 10 to 20 minutes can also help you feel more refreshed and energetic during the day.[24]

Keep Your Environment Conducive for Sleep

Let your bedroom be your sleep sanctuary that is meant only for sleeping. Keep your workstation and all electronic devices away from the bedroom.

Make your environment conducive for good sleep by setting the right temperature in your bedroom.[25] The recommended temperature for optimal sleep is around 60 – 67°F or 15.6 – 19.4°C.[26]  Invest in a comfortable mattress and pillow that will aid your relaxing night’s sleep.

You can aid sleep by making sure your bedroom is quiet and free of all distractions by using thick blinds, curtains, or shades in darker hues. You can have a white noise machine or put on some earplugs or an eye mask if you are a light sleeper.

If you have a problem with sleeping too much, then let there be lots of natural light coming into your bedroom in the morning. An alternative is to get a sunrise alarm clock that simulates sunlight. This will trigger the circadian pacemaker, making you more likely to wake up naturally and be alert all day.

Avoid the Light From Street Lamps and Electronic Devices

Melatonin is a hormone that’s released in your brain naturally after dark to promote sleep. The high-intensity LED light from street lights, blue light from devices, and TV screens disrupt melatonin production and stimulate our brain. The American Medical Association issued a warning about street lights.[26] You can block the street lights by using blackout curtains.

You can shut off television, mobile, and laptop at least an hour before you sleep. The blue light from these devices can delay the melatonin release by up to three hours.[27]

Find Healthier and More Soothing Ways to Relax Around Bedtime

One of the common reasons for insomnia is anxiety. Find relaxation rituals and techniques such as taking a warm bath before bedtime, meditation or prayer, or reading a book that soothes you to sleep. Spending time on your mobile, laptop, or TV can make you feel anxious or stimulated and delay sleep.

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3. Watch What You Consume

What you consume has a direct relationship with your energy levels.

Aim to have a healthy, balanced diet that includes:[28]

  • At least five portions of fruits and vegetables daily
  • Complex carbohydrates like whole grains and beans
  • Eight glasses of fluids apart from your solid food intake
  • Dairy or dairy alternatives like almond milk
  • Small amounts of unsaturated fats

You can gain a head start early in the day by having a healthy breakfast consisting of fruit, protein, whole grains, nuts, and protein. This may keep you alert and help you beat morning fatigue.

So, remember to make time for breakfast as it can jumpstart your metabolism, even if it’s just fruit and cereal or toast. A carbohydrate-rich, high-fiber breakfast is a smart option as your brain is dependent on glucose for energy.[29]

Iron, magnesium, and Vitamin B12 are some key nutrients for energy.[30] So, include iron-rich foods such as spinach, kale, chickpeas, kidney beans, liver, and lean red meat, as well as magnesium-rich foods like nuts, leafy vegetables, chocolate, and magnesium butter.

Vitamin B12 is found naturally in eggs, dairy, meat, and shellfish. Vegans and vegetarians tend to lack B12 and iron.[31] If you are a vegan or vegetarian, you need to talk to your doctor about assessing your iron and B12 intake.

Foods with high antioxidant levels, also known as superfoods, are not only great for your immune system but will also help you feel energetic. Superfoods include berries, melons, whole grains, dairy, and meat.[32]

Avoid processed foods with a lot of glucose and fructose and long ingredient lists. Limit or avoid highly refined or simple carbs such as white bread and pasta that spikes your blood sugar levels and makes you feel sluggish.[33] Instead, opt for whole foods wherever possible. Reduce fat, sugar, and salt in your foods.

Eating at regular intervals such as three meals and one snack every day will help sustain your energy.[34] Having small portions as heavy meals can make you feel sleepy and divert your energy from the digestion process.

You can keep your blood sugar balanced by having protein in every meal. While carbohydrates provide glucose that makes you feel energetic, proteins make you attentive and alert. Most protein sources also contain iron, which is a bonus.[35] Seeds, nuts, pulses, eggs, fish, and meat are good options for protein.

Pay attention to your snack time. You tend to crave carb-rich foods when you’re tired. While carb-rich foods give you a quick burst of energy, they will also leave you feeling sleepy and tired sooner after a while. Instead, pair your carbs with protein to sustain your energy longer.[36] Trail mixes or crackers with peanut butter are healthy snack ideas.

Our body is composed of nearly 70% of water. So, it is not surprising that the cause of our tiredness may be linked to our insufficient water intake. Drink the recommended water intake of around three liters daily and you will see a difference.

You should avoid all kinds of stimulants, be it coffee, alcohol, or tobacco several hours before bedtime, especially if you’re feeling tired or having sleep issues. Your last cup of coffee should be no later than 3 PM. If you tend to feel tired after drinking caffeine, stop all caffeine products for a few weeks and pay close attention to how your body responds, and you may feel less tired without it.

Green tea is a better alternative to coffee. While it also contains caffeine, green tea has l-theanine, which suppresses the stimulant effects of caffeine.[37]

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There is a misconception that drinking alcohol before bedtime aids sleep. Alcohol affects the quality of your sleep, making you feel tired the next day.[38]  If you drink during the daytime, the alcohol produces melatonin, lulling you into a low-energy state. Be cautious of alcohol consumption.

Oxygen mixes with glucose in your body to produce energy. When you smoke, the carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke reduces the oxygen in your blood, making you feel more tired and sleepy.[39] Also, smoking contains nicotine, which is a stimulant, affecting your quality of sleep.

4. Minimize Stress Levels

You can assess your current stress levels and take measures to manage them. Whether a trusted friend or doctor, talking about your current issues can help you feel better.

There are various ways to manage stress daily. You need to check in with your body regularly during the day, and poor posture can contribute to tiredness.[40] Conscious breathing every hour or so can help improve your posture, boost your energy, and keep your oxygen and blood flowing all day.

If you are on the computer or mobile phone for long periods, take periodic breaks as staring continuously at these devices can zap your energy and make you feel anxious. Give your eyes and mind a break. You can do something or nothing during these breaks. During your short breaks, you have so many options to choose from, such as yoga, meditation, journaling, smelling the energizing scents of essential oils like rosemary, peppermint, or lemon, listening to music, dancing, or taking a walk outdoors.

Staying indoors for prolonged periods can make you feel blue. Spend some time outdoors in the sunshine and nature preferably. This can boost your mood and energy.

Exercise may add to your energy levels. Make a plan to eat before you start and factor in rest days during the week. It helps reduce stress and makes you sleep better. However, you may want to avoid doing it before bedtime.

5. Consult Your Doctor

If you have unexplained tiredness, it’s best to consult your doctor. Your doctor should be able to diagnose the cause of your tiredness.

Certain exams and screenings can help detect the cause, be it thyroid disease, coeliac disease, or depression. Based on the cause, your doctor may prescribe counseling, talk therapy, medication, or a combination of these.

Final Thoughts

Feeling tired and sleepy occasionally is normal. But if it’s a regular aspect of your life that’s adversely affecting your life, it’s time to assess the possible reasons and take action. You may need to work on your sleep habits, lifestyle, and consult your doctor.

I have listed several strategies you can use to fight constant sleepiness and tiredness. But daytime tiredness can be a sign of an underlying medical problem. So, it’s best to consult your doctor to understand the exact cause and find the best solution for you.

More Tips to Help You Sleep Better

Featured photo credit: Bruno van der Kraan via unsplash.com

Reference

[1] NHS: Sleep and tiredness
[2] Mayo Clinic: Chronic fatigue syndrome
[3] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 1 in 3 adults don’t get enough sleep
[4] NCBI: Effects of light on human circadian rhythms, sleep, and mood
[5] John Hopkins Medicine: Oversleeping: Bad for Your Health?
[6] Mayo Clinic: Obstructive sleep apnea
[7] NCBI: Vitamins and Minerals for Energy, Fatigue, and Cognition: A Narrative Review of the Biochemical and Clinical Evidence
[8] NHS Inform: Dehydration
[9] NHS: 10 medical reasons for feeling tired
[10] National Institutes of Health: Iron
[11] PubMed.gov: [Iron deficiency anemia in hospitalized males and postmenopausal females. Diagnostic approach]
[12] Cleveland Clinic: Hemochromatosis (Iron Overload)
[13] NIH: Hyperthyroidism (Overactive Thyroid
[14] Mayo Clinic: Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
[15] Mayo Clinic: Diabetes symptoms: When diabetes symptoms are a concern
[16] NHS Inform: Glandular fever
[17] Mayo Clinic: Generalized anxiety disorder
[18] NCBI: Fatigue as a Residual Symptom of Depression
[19] PubMed.gov: Fatigue in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Pooled Frequency and Severity of Fatigue
[20] Mayo Clinic: Low blood pressure (hypotension)
[21] CDC: Tips for Better Sleep
[22] NCBI: Recommended Amount of Sleep for a Healthy Adult: A Joint Consensus Statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society
[23] CDC: 1 in 3 adults don’t get enough sleep
[24] Sleep Foundation: Napping
[25] Sleep Foundation: The Best Temperature for Sleep
[26] American Medical Association: AMA adopts guidance to reduce harm from high-intensity street lights
[27] Harvard Health Publishing: Blue light has a dark side
[28] CDC: Diet: Reducing Risks Associated with Long Work Hours
[29] PubMed.gov: The effects of high-carbohydrate vs high-fat breakfasts on feelings of fullness and alertness, and subsequent food intake
[30] NCBI: Vitamins and Minerals for Energy, Fatigue, and Cognition: A Narrative Review of the Biochemical and Clinical Evidence
[31] NHS: Vegetarian and vegan diets Q&A
[32] NHS: The energy ‘diet’
[33] Harvard School of Public Health: Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar
[34] Harvard Health Publishing: Eating to boost energy
[35] EurekAlert!: Protein in the brain uses energy status to influence maturation, body size, new research shows
[36] Duke University: Smart Snacking
[37] PubMed.gov: The Effects of Green Tea Amino Acid L-Theanine Consumption on the Ability to Manage Stress and Anxiety Levels: a Systematic Review
[38] NCBI: The Effects of Alcohol on Quality of Sleep
[39] Cleveland Clinic: Smoking and Physical Activity
[40] CareFlex: Fatigue

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Dr. Arun Villivalam

General Practitioner and Primary Care Doctor

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Last Updated on January 18, 2022

How to Improve Digestion: 6 Ways For Stressful People

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How to Improve Digestion: 6 Ways For Stressful People

Does your digestive system seem off lately? Or has it been like that for a while? Have you been experiencing feelings of stress or burnout? If the answer to both these questions is yes, it could be the stress that’s driving your digestive system out of whack. You might also be wondering how you can improve your digestion.

Studies show that your stress levels can wreak havoc on both your mind and body.[1] One of the biggest ways that stress can impair your body’s condition is by disrupting the performance of your digestive system, resulting in a variety of adverse health consequences.

How Stress Affects Digestion

Some of the most common digestive issues caused by stress include heartburn, acid reflux, ulcer, diarrhea, and indigestion. Stress can also indirectly trigger the development of irritable bowel syndrome by affecting your immune system.

Researchers have also shown that individuals already suffering from IBS tend to have frequent flare-ups of systems when they are under considerable stress.[2] Conditions such as IBS and other gastrointestinal tract diseases are considered stress-sensitive disorders. Effective treatment usually entails the patient learning to cope with and manage their stress levels.[3]

A scientific review also discovered that there could be a strong correlation between high levels of stress and eating disorders, such as overeating and obesity.[4] When an individual is experiencing stress, their adrenal glands release cortisol, which is also known as the stress hormone. This hormone is known to increase appetite, leading to overeating and other related eating disorders. People with high cortisol levels are more likely to consume foods with high fat and/or sugar content, resulting in more digestive issues and weight gain.

Effectively reducing your stress levels can help reduce inflammation in your gastrointestinal tract and lower the sensitivity of your gut. Moreover, lower stress levels contribute to easing any gastrointestinal distress you may be experiencing, while at the same time optimizing nutritional uptake.

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If you find that your stress levels are high affecting your digestion, here are some tips that can help heal your gut.

1. Increase Your Level of Physical Activity

One way to boost your digestion and, at the same time, lower your stress levels is by engaging in moderate physical activity regularly. Physical activity helps increase blood flow to the different parts of your digestive system, which makes it easier for food to move along the digestive tract while improving the efficiency of the digestive muscles.

This movement of food along the digestive tract is known as peristalsis. Common signs that your peristalsis is not working optimally include constant constipation and diarrhea, and in some extreme situations, motility disorder.

Movement and exercise are also important in triggering the release of endorphins, which help relieve tension and are considered natural pain relievers. Endorphins are also quite effective at boosting one’s sleep quality, which is essential in combatting high levels of stress.

Physical activities that are known to improve digestion include regular running, walking, and biking. Yoga poses that focus on improving posture and alignment are also helpful in easing and eradicating gastrointestinal distress and act as a potent stress reliever.

2. Consider Foods That Are Natural Stress Relievers

Scientists have also discovered that some foods naturally contain mood-boosting properties. Consuming such foods can help relieve your stress symptoms while still providing your body with critical nutrients for optimal health.

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Almonds, for instance, contain high levels of magnesium, a mineral that has been proven to help manage cortisol levels in the body. Almonds also contain high levels of vitamin B, which, together with magnesium, help in increasing the production of serotonin, a powerful mood stabilizer and feel-good hormone.

Moreover, low levels of serotonin in the body have been linked to the development of irritable bowel syndrome, GERD, and duodenal ulcers, as well as episodes of bloating, cramping, constipation, and diarrhea.[5]

Dark chocolate is another type of snack that can help boost your digestion and bring down your stress levels. It is considered a highly efficient mood booster, but it also has a direct impact on your body’s digestive system. For starters, dark chocolate has a high concentration of flavonoids, a major antioxidant agent.

This chocolate also has high fiber content, mainly because of the cocoa used in production. When the gut bacteria ferment the antioxidants and fiber contained in the dark chocolate, anti-inflammatory compounds are released.[6] These compounds are not only essential in fighting inflammation within your digestive system, but they also play a crucial role in improving cardiovascular function and combatting inflammation-related disorders throughout your body.

Cocoa has also been shown to trigger the production of more healthy microbes in the colon, a further boost to your digestive system. It is also highly recommended to eat foods that are rich in probiotics and prebiotics. These compounds are critical in the production of good gut bacteria.

The abundance of good bacteria in the gut is essential for proper digestion of food and controlling inflammation within your digestive system and other parts of the body. Examples of foods rich in probiotics include yogurt, kombucha, kefir, tempeh, and natto.[7] Fruits and vegetables rich in prebiotics include the likes of onions, asparagus, garlic, and bananas. Consider making these gut-boosting foods part of your regular diet for enhanced digestive performance.

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3. Try Probiotic Supplements

Probiotics can also help improve your digestion. If you find that you don’t like probiotic foods or find them difficult to obtain, try a probiotic supplement instead. Research has shown probiotics to have remarkable effects on digestion, stress levels, immunity, and much more.[8]

Look for a probiotic that uses time-release tablets as these are more likely to deliver the probiotic bacteria safely past your stomach acid. Most probiotics in capsules are damaged or destroyed before they reach your intestines.

4. Avoid Foods That Can Impair Digestion

Just as there are good foods that can help improve digestion and simultaneously provide stress relief, there are foods that can wreak havoc on your digestive system.

Remember, when you are experiencing high levels of stress, your appetite increases, and you are more inclined to consume foods with a lot of (added) sugar and fats. Both these things are known to increase inflammation in people’s digestive systems, resulting in a variety of GI issues like constant bloating, diarrhea, and excessive gas.

Other major food culprits that can disrupt your digestive function include processed bread, white chocolate, coffee, and highly acidic foods.

5. Identify and Avoid Your Stress Triggers

An examination into what triggers your high-stress levels can help you identify these factors, and allow you to mitigate their impact on your physical and mental well-being.

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Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a form of therapy that helps you uncover the source of your negative thinking as well as the triggers that cause your stress levels to elevate. CBT has been shown to reduce stress in individuals with IBS. Consequently, these individuals suffered fewer IBS symptoms. This demonstrates the effectiveness of therapy in minimizing stress, which then directly boosts the digestive health of the individual.[9]

Meditation and mindfulness are also powerful techniques that can help you ease your stress levels. Studies have also shown that these practices can also help ease inflammation across the body, including along your gastrointestinal tract. Meditating as well as doing some breathing exercises before eating can help relax you, which in turn allows your digestive system to function optimally.

6. Quit Smoking and Excessive Consumption of Alcohol

Our stress coping techniques can also significantly impair our digestive function. If you are using cigarettes and/or alcohol to cope with your stress, you are inadvertently introducing a host of dangerous chemicals that will affect your digestive health.

Smoking and alcohol consumption have been linked to a variety of GI diseases including heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcers, gallstones, pancreatitis, liver diseases, and Crohn’s disease.[10] It’s imperative that you look for healthier stress coping mechanisms, such as meditation and exercise to avoid exposing your digestive system to dangerous compounds.

Final Thoughts

If you’re wondering how to improve your digestion, the first thing you should know is that your stress levels actively impact how well your digestive system functions. Addressing your stress triggers, through exercise, therapy, and physical activity will help bring down your stress levels and allow your body’s digestive system to function optimally.

Moreover, consume foods that are good for your digestion, including foods rich in magnesium, vitamin B, serotonin, fiber, and antioxidants. Lastly, avoid stress coping mechanisms that put your digestive system in jeopardy, like smoking or excessive consumption of alcohol.

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More Tips on How to Improve Digestion

Featured photo credit: Eugene Chystiakov via unsplash.com

Reference

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