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Published on November 9, 2018

The Leading Causes of Prenatal Depression and How to Manage it Best

The Leading Causes of Prenatal Depression and How to Manage it Best

Prenatal depression is defined as a form of clinical depression affecting women during pregnancy. It can also be a pre-cursor to post natal depression. It is estimated to affect 10% of women worldwide; with higher instances within third world countries.[1]

Evidence indicates that treating the depression of mothers leads to improved growth and development of the newborn and reduces the likelihood of diarrhea and malnutrition among them.

Awareness of prenatal mental health is important in order to be your best as a parent and improving the health of your child. Have you ever contemplated what the impact could be of potentially unrecognised prenatal depression?

Leading Causes of Prenatal Depression

Although antenatal depression is more likely to occur among women who have a history of depression, it is by no means inevitable. It is important, however, that women with a history of mental health issues tell their midwife and/or GP, so they can discuss how this might affect their pregnancy and birth, and plan the right care and support.

Other factors causing prenatal depression are previous difficulty conceiving, unplanned pregnancy, emotional and physical abuse as well as relationship and financial concerns.

In a recent article posted by The BabyCenter, the authors stated that:[2]

“For years, experts mistakenly believed that pregnancy hormones protected against depression, leaving women more vulnerable to the illness only after the baby was born and their hormone levels plunged.”

It is now understood that a potential contributing factor towards prenatal depression is actually an imbalance in hormones. More and more information is coming out as this myth has been debunked and more research is being funded. This also shows in the lack of information for parents to turn to in such cases.

Common concerns can include:

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  • How mum feels about going through such a major life-changing event.
  • How mum views herself including negative perceptions about physical changes, such as weight gain, swollen breasts, and other discomfort.
  • The restrictions to mum’s lifestyle that motherhood might incur.
  • How mum’s partner or family feel about the baby.
  • How depression during pregnancy could impact relationships.
  • Difficulties with previous pregnancies.

Whilst these concerns are common for all expecting parents, and have been understood to be expected concerns in the past. Since the change in understanding about the prevalence of prenatal depression, it is clear that obsessive and chronic focus on the above points is linked and a sign of prenatal depression.

Signs of Prenatal Depression

Antenatal depression can begin at any point during pregnancy and is characterized as having a higher than normal level of worry about the impending birth and parenthood.

Whilst the majority of the following symptoms are common ‘side effects’ of pregnancy. The important factor to highlight here is if they become extreme, without break and/or multiple.

There are many signs that can show prenatal depression; from the following list, if seeing or experiencing more than one symptom, I suggest you seek advice from a qualified medical professional.

  • Lack of energy and extreme fatigue
  • Feeling emotionally detached
  • Tearfulness
  • Chronic anxiety
  • Feeling isolated and guilty
  • Inability to concentrate and difficulty remembering
  • Feeling emotionally numb
  • Extreme irritability
  • Sleeping too much or not enough, or restless sleep
  • Desire to over eat, or not eat at all
  • Weight loss/gain unrelated to pregnancy
  • Loss of interest in sex
  • A sense of dread about everything, including the pregnancy
  • Persistent sadness
  • Inability to get excited about the impending birth
  • Inability to feel a bond with the growing baby
  • Thoughts of suicide, or death

As previously mentioned, some of these factors are more commonly understood as ‘symptoms’ of pregnancy. Others are obviously more concerning. It’s important to have an awareness, both by the mother to be and her partner, in order to halt any brewing depression in it’s track.

As with any mental illness, open communication about the matter is one of the most beneficial things that can be done to overcome it. That is a pre cursor to all of the following examples of how to manage prenatal depression to facilitate overcoming it.

How to Manage and Overcome Prenatal Depression

1. Speak out

Don’t try to be ‘superwoman’. Try to do less and make sure that you don’t get over-tired.

Find someone you can talk to. If you don’t have a close friend you can turn to, there are many online support groups and even networks through social media. Your local group can be very supportive both before and after childbirth.

Go to antenatal classes. If you have a partner, take them with you. If not, take a friend or relative.

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2. Ask for help from your peers

Peer support in the right environment can be of great benefit to mothers affected by antenatal depression and PND.

Speaking to someone who has been through what you’re going through, and who has recovered allows mums to see they can get better.

However, do check that these groups are properly safeguarded with well-trained staff and volunteers, who have access to clinical supervision and support for themselves.

3. Antidepressants

Your GP may prescribe antidepressants which can help to ease many of the symptoms of moderate or severe antenatal depression. It is generally considered safe to take certain types of antidepressants when pregnant or breastfeeding, though do discuss this with your doctor who will ensure the ones selected for you are compatible.

Don’t stop (or change) antidepressant medication during pregnancy without medical advice. Around seven in 10 women who stop antidepressants in pregnancy relapse if they stop their medication.

You need to discuss the risks and benefits of continuing treatment in pregnancy and while breastfeeding.

4. Counselling and therapy

Talking treatments, such as counselling and psychotherapy, offer you the opportunity to look at the underlying factors that have contributed to depression, as well as helping you to change the way you feel.

If a friend or someone you know recommends a therapist, this can be a great way to find someone. If you don’t feel that the method of therapy or the therapist isn’t working for you, you can always change and try someone else. Private practitioners will charge a fee for their services, so this will probably be another factor in your decision.

Whoever you choose, make sure your therapist is registered with an accredited body, such as the American Counseling Association (ACA) and the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP). You could also contact your Community Mental Health Team.

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5. Spend time with your partner

Experiencing depression – particularly during pregnancy – can feel isolating and confusing, but you’re not alone.

Try to talk about how you’re feeling and be positive about seeking help. It’s the best thing you can do.

With the right help and support, particularly early on, things can get better.

6. Reduce inflammation

One traditional hypothesis of any type depression is that people who are depressed have a deficiency in monoamine neurotransmitters in the body, which leads to low levels of neurotransmitters like serotonin and norephinephrine in the brain.

But growing evidence supports that at least some forms of depression may also be linked to ongoing low-grade inflammation in the body. Pregnancy causes amounts of inflammation as the body changes.

Working to manage this inflammation can therefore be assumed to assist in reducing prenatal depression. Simple things such as spending time outside, meditation, hydration, eating plenty of green vegetables and regular gentle exercise have been shown to reduce inflammation.

7. Improve gut health

Continuing from the previous post, long term low level inflammation has a negative effect on gut health.

The intestinal wall is our border with the outside world. Because the gut is where things from the outside (like food) are absorbed inside our bodies, the intestinal wall is designed to handle a many types of interactions with foreign matter. Considering the functions of our gut, it makes sense that most of our immune cells are located in the gut.

Further, the gut is home to our microbiome, the trillions of beneficial microbes that live inside our gastrointestinal tract. When a potential threat is sensed in the gut, large, far-reaching inflammation occurs. This inflammation can travel directly from your gut to your brain, especially through the vagus nerve.

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One of the most direct and quick ways to calm the vagus nerve is through dietary change. Just as emotions send messages to your gut, food sends messages to your brain. Spend time focussing on nutrition containing plenty of fibre from vegetable sources as well as including fermented foods to replenish your gut bacteria.

Myths About Pre & Post Natal Depression

Pre and post natal depression is often misunderstood and there are many myths surrounding it. These include:

  • Postnatal depression is less severe than other types of depression?
    In fact, it’s as serious as other types of depression.
  • Prenatal depression is not possible due to hormonal changes?
    In fact, those hormonal changes can contribute.
  • Postnatal depression is entirely caused by hormonal changes?
    It’s actually caused by many different factors.
  • Postnatal depression will soon pass?
    Unlike the “baby blues”, postnatal depression can persist for months if left untreated. In a minority of cases, it can become a long-term problem.
  • Postnatal depression only affects women?
    Research has actually found that up to 1 in 10 new fathers become depressed after having a baby.

Conclusion

Virtually all women can develop mental disorders during pregnancy and in the first year after delivery. But poverty, migration, extreme stress, exposure to violence (domestic, sexual and gender-based), emergency and conflict situations, natural disasters, and low social support generally increase risks for specific disorders.

Prenatal depression can be extremely dangerous for the health of the mother, and the baby, if not properly treated. If you feel you might be suffering from antenatal depression, it is highly recommended to speak with your health care provider about it. Together you can discuss ways to help treat and cope with this mental illness.

It’s becoming more prevalent and more widely understood as more medical studies are being done. Antenatal depression was once thought to simply be the normal stress associated with any pregnancy, and was waved off as a common ailment.

It can be caused by many factors, usually though involving aspects of the mothers personal life such as, family, economic standing, relationship status, etc. It can also be caused by hormonal and physical changes that are associated with pregnancy.

Most important advice – if you believe you are at risk or may be developing symptoms, reach out for advice and speak to someone.

Featured photo credit: Suhyeon Choi via unsplash.com

Reference

[1]World Health Organization: Maternal Mental Health
[2]The Baby Center: Depression during pregnancy

More by this author

Camilla Dempster

A prenatal/postnatal expert who teaches women to ditch the binge/restrict/guilt cycle around their body, food and exercise.

Signs of Postnatal Depression And What to Do When It Strikes The Leading Causes of Prenatal Depression and How to Manage it Best The Most Critical Do’s and Don’ts of Working Out While Pregnant Working in the Third Trimester (The Complete Survival Guide) How to Eat Healthy on a Budget (The Definitive Guide)

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Last Updated on January 15, 2019

8 Simple Mindfulness Exercises to Bring Peace and Happiness to Your Life

8 Simple Mindfulness Exercises to Bring Peace and Happiness to Your Life

In life, we all need to be conscientious of what we are doing. You don’t need to live a life of stress if you don’t want to. You can achieve peace and happiness in life by carefully building mindfulness exercises into your life’s routine.

Exercising mindfulness isn’t rocket science and as importantly, you can do it. It will, however, take a few tries to get into the groove of things but once you get it, it is like riding a bike, you will never lose it.

Trust me. It’s in your best interest to learn and put these mindfulness exercises into practice. In this article, I will share with you 8 mindfulness exercises that will help you to boost your energy, vitality and live a more peaceful and happier life.

Why Is It Hard to Live A Peaceful And Happy Life?

Our Habitat Has Become Too Technological

The world has accepted the idea that technology is often the cure for all evil. We have accepted, as a society, that everything technological will make us live a better life without fully investigating the many side effects that modernity brings.

There are a number of technological side effects that have a tremendous impact on your life that the media rarely tells you about.[1] Some of them include self-harm, economic inequality, having less sex, and even suicide. The global community is becoming less happy because of technology.

How can anybody live a peaceful and happy life when they are depressed? Technology advancements, ladies and gents, is a major reason for why we are living a poor life because it has infiltrated our lives too much.

According to my research, Americans spend an average of 8 hours a day looking at the computer screen — The average screen time spent on smartphones alone is about 20 hours per week. That’s a lot! No wonder why living a happy and peaceful life is so difficult these days.

Too Many People Don’t Want to Unplug

Americans check their phones an average of 80 times during vacation.[2] Some admit to checking their smartphones 300 times every single day. In countries like Brazil, India and China, the situation is no different.

The reality is that people are constantly plugged into technological devices and this behavior is literally making people all over the globe fight an inner war with themselves, which consequently makes them very sad. As we know, war is the enemy of peace which won’t make anybody happy.

Listen carefully:

We have a global anxiety epidemic because people don’t want to unplug from their smartphones and most people aren’t doing anything to fix it. It is a sad state of affairs but very real. This obsession with technology is turning us into perishable robots who live terrible lives.

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The era of anxiety is here to stay. There is little doubt about it. We can, however, fight back with the best remedy of all — We call it mindfulness!

Thank God there is an antidote to this whole technological madness. Without further ado, let’s go straight to the mindful exercises.

8 Mindfulness Exercises to Start Practicing

There are tons of mindfulness exercises available for you to engage with out there.[3] In the paragraphs below, I will include the best ones I’ve personally tried or have seen my close friends and family members try.

Are you ready for it? Let’s go!

1. Pray Daily

You should pray on a daily basis. Why is that you may ask — Well, because science has told us to do so.

When people pray, they feel peaceful, almost eliminating anxiety. Worries become secondary, and often gives people energy and hope to cope with the difficulties of life.

Prayer can make you more confident and focused. Prayer also helps you with self-control, helps to control pain, and can protect you against illnesses and disorders like cancer and high blood pressure. At least, this is what researchers from Harvard Medical School have said.[4]

Pray. You won’t regret it.[5]

2. Pay Attention to Your Inner Thoughts

A lot of people allow themselves to be influenced by their negative thoughts. Be different and resist believing in them. It is a bad habit that can lead to unhappiness.

By the way, if you do feel this way, chances are high that somebody other than you put these thoughts into your head.

Here is my secret to combat this cancer — look at things objectively. I bet that if you look at things as they are, you will realize that most if not all of your negative thoughts are only inside of your head.

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If you pay close attention, you will quickly realize that these voices aren’t worth your time. Believe me — Ignoring them and looking at things with objectivity is often the best course of action.

This article can guide you to beat negative thoughts:

How to Stop Automatic Negative Thoughts When You’re Overwhelmed

3. Smile Often

Smiling will slow down your heart. It will also relax your body because when you smile, your body releases endorphins which in itself has a number of positive benefits for you as a person.

Smile often! You may want to smile early in the morning, during the day, and late in the evening. It is amazing what happens to you when you decide to smile instead of being grumpy.

Surrender your problems to a nice smile. You will notice two things. First, most people just don’t which makes them live a miserable life. Second, if you decide to smile often, you will eventually smile unconsciously which is the ideal.

The moment that you smile unconsciously, you then know that you are truly happy.

4. Organize Your Working Desk

A messy desk will make you less productive and can agitate and overstimulate you. You don’t want that.

When you clear your desk, you engage in deep inner-thinking and your systematic decision making ends up becoming therapeutic.

Most people realize that they are most creative when their creative space is clean and organized. The former often makes people more aware of what they are doing which lends to less stress and more productivity.

Organizing your desk will also make you more energetic and focused because order often decreases chaos which is a condition that often slows down daily progress.

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5. Celebrate Your Friend’s Victories

I love this mindful exercise. One of the best ways to live a happy and peaceful life is to celebrate the victories of others. When you do that, you automatically make your friends in a better mood which makes you in a better mood, as well.

Happiness is contagious! We might as well celebrate others as much as we can. If you find out that your peer has won an award, celebrate with him! If your friend is the recipient of a local charity award, celebrate with her!

What is also awesome is that when you celebrate with others, they often celebrate with you in return. This, ladies and gentleman, will make you feel fantastic. You can’t go wrong with this one, period.

6. Listen to Your Spouse/Partner

God put someone in your life for a reason. You might as well listen to him or her.

I listen to my wife everyday. In fact, I often ask the following question to her, “Amanda, what are your thoughts about…” or “What am I missing about…” It is shocking what I hear back from her. Without her having much context and perspective, by the art of observation in my own nonverbal behavior and the behavior of others, she accurately gives me incredible insights which helps me out with living my life to the fullest.

I’m a firm believer that spouses are supposed to engage in interpersonal communication every day. I most definitely do and will continue doing it. You should do the same.

7. Give Yourself a Break from Technology

You can’t be in total equilibrium if your computerized devices control your life. You must get away from technology on a daily basis.[6]

How do you do that? This is my formula:

First, go to my website (find my website here in my profile) and take the smartphone control test. It is only ten questions but this test will place you somewhere in the human robot cycle continuum.

If your score is between 25-30, take a break from the computer (or smartphone, pad, laptop/desktop) every twenty minutes and stop being on a computerized device after 8:00pm.

If you score between 30-35, still take a break every 20 minutes but stop being on these devices at 5:00pm.

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If you score more than 35, you need to take action immediately.

Limit computer use as much as possible throughout the day. Give yourself as many breaks from the computer as possible. Are you ready for the challenge?

8. Go Exercise

Go exercise at least three times a week. I don’t care if you need to workout early in the morning, late in the evening, on the weekends or during work days. Working out is absolutely imperative for you to live happy and peaceful life.

The stresses of the modern world are too much for you to neglect this important mindfulness exercise. When you go to the gym, you burn calories, focus on activities one step at a time, your mind relaxes, anxiety decreases, you sweat and often think about topics unrelated to your work place among many other benefits.

You must exercise at least three hours each week for optimum results. Why? Just take a look at all the benefits of regular exercising:

12 Benefits of Regular Exercise You Should Know

The Bottom Line

It’s in your best interest to learn and put these mindfulness exercises into practice. Now that our habitat has become too technological and many people just don’t want to unplug, engaging in daily prayer, celebrate your friends’ victories, and listening to your spouse are among the best ways to be mindful about what you are doing and how you are living.

It is possible to live a happy and peaceful life. It only depends on you.

Go exercise! Take a break from technology and invest in you! Life is too short for distractions.

More Resources About Mindfulness

Featured photo credit: Lesly Juarez via unsplash.com

Reference

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