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How to Avoid Micromanagement with Swarm Intelligence (Step-By-Step Guide )

How to Avoid Micromanagement with Swarm Intelligence (Step-By-Step Guide )

Have you ever wondered how a flock of birds interact so brilliantly? Or how ants and termites build fascinating colonies?

More importantly, have you ever wondered how your organization could mimic a flock of birds or an ant colony to create a thriving organization without having to micro-manage every little detail?

What is Swarm Intelligence?

First introduced by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in 1989, swarm intelligence is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, for which social insects are one of the best examples.

    Swarm intelligence is an attempt to design algorithms or distributed problem-solving devices intended to mimic the collective behavior of social insect colonies.[1]

    Essentially, swarm intelligence improves our collective behaviors (our outputs).

    Derek and Laura Cabrera, systems theorists and professors at Cornell University compare this to a game of chess in Flock Not Clock,

    “The game of chess has simple enough rules for a child to master, yet there are 318 billion possible ways to play the first four moves. The behaviors (or outputs) of systems – be they a flock of starlings or biodiversity writ large, chess matches or organizations – are emergent properties of simple rules at the local level. By identifying, understanding, and applying these simple rules, we can make the outputs better.”

    Let’s look at an example of how these simple rules work for an ant colony:

    Simple rules outlined by the Cabrera’s allow social insects (such as ants) to become a superorganism. These simple rules are as follows:[2]

    1. Look for food. Ants randomly forage for food.
    2. If you find food, shoot pheromones. A few find food and communicate by leaving a pheromone trail increasing probability of collective action on food piles.
    3. Never cross a pheromone trail. Self-organizing behavior around simple rules produces collective intelligence.

    How to identify simple rules that work

    The Cabrera’s have defined four simple and deeply connected rules that apply in all types of organizations: Vision (V), Mission (M), Capacity (C), Learning (L).

    1. Vision (V): Your desired future state or goal (what do you see?). For example, ask the following: What do you see today? What should you see tomorrow?
    2. Mission (M): Repeatable actions that bring out the vision (what do you do?).
    3. Capacity (C): Systems that provide readiness to execute the mission (how do we align capacity?). Here you build capacity to do the mission.
    4. Learning (L): Continuous improvement of systems of capacity based on feedback from the external environment (love of learning). For example, the Cabrera’s explain that a big part of learning is making people aware of the lens through which they perceive reality.

    Why Swarm Intelligence matters to your team

      Dr. Louis Rosenberg (founder of Unanimous AI) informs us that we (as individuals) are smart, yet as a group we are even smarter – we are able to amplify our intelligence.

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      “A brain is a system of neurons so deeply interconnected that an intelligence forms. A swarm is a system of brains so deeply interconnected that a super-intelligence forms. Simply put, a swarm is a brain of brains and it can be smarter than any individual member.” – Dr. Louis Rosenberg

      In Human Swarming and the future of Collective Intelligence, Rosenberg discusses the potential of human swarming. He writes,[3]

      If we consider the leap in intelligence between an individual ant and a full ant colony working as one, can we expect the same level of amplification as we go from single individual humans to an elevated ‘hyper-mind’ that emerges from real-time human swarming?

      So, can humans swarm?

      Yes.

      How can humans swarm?

      According to Rosenberg, technology is the key. Humans can swarm only if we develop technologies that fill in missing pieces of evolution that hasn’t yet been provided.[4]

      Rosenberg developed a platform allowing swarms of online users to make decisions and answer questions together by moving a graphical puck. The puck is generated by a central server and modeled as a real-world physical system.

      Watch the following video to see how this platform works:

      How I Swarm the classroom (a case study)

      I have recently examined some of the innovative ways educators try to improve the learning environment. One such way is through “flipping the classroom.” This is a teaching pedagogy which reverses old classroom teaching through a form of blended learning using modern technology and practical application.[5]

      While a flipped classroom is an excellent approach to education, I feel as though we need to take it a step further and allow the classroom to “flip itself” and emerge on its own. Our classroom should be a complex adaptive system (CAS) with no set leader. It should use simple rules to guide it.

      I am currently using the following simple rules for an online course I teach at Fort Hays State University (FHSU) in Hays, Kansas: [6]

      Rule #1. Students interact locally with each other in a decentralized environment.

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      I use a free decision-making software called Loomio that allows my students to move past the typically discussion board thread. My students use Loomio as a launching point for the creation of systems diagrams/maps.

      I also use Loomio to build a complex adaptive syllabus by proposing or collaborating on decision tools within Loomio.

      Rule #2. Students analyze and synthesize concepts and share mental models, increasing the collective knowledge of the group.

      Using the Cabrera’s DSRP Theory -Distinctions, Systems, Relationships, and Perspectives, my students are able to break apart concepts and put them back together using two powerful platforms (also developed by the Cabrera’s!).

      First, my class uses Thinkquiry to help them develop and ask questions that penetrate deeper into a concept. They use these guiding questions to start breaking apart and rebuilding a concept.

      Second, my students then use Plectica to break apart and rebuild concepts. My students build concept maps using Plectica (free – I use it daily!) by visually organizing parts that can be combined and connected to each other to form a more complete picture.

      Rule #3. Students react and adapt to changes without asking for permission by forming systems with immediate Action-Feedback-Change (AFC) Loops.

        The most optimal way to improve is to intuitively act, recognize that we are constantly receiving feedback from reality when our mental models crash into reality, and change by forming new mental models.

        Thus, I developed the continuous Action-Feedback-Change (AFC) Loop designed to help me understand how we improve and adapt (as individuals and as a group).

        How to use Swarm Intelligence to make your team strive (Step-by-step guide)

        So, how can you use this information? How can you apply it as an individual or a group?

        It’s actually quite simple.

        1. Identify your goal

        Are you trying to improve the collective intelligence of a group? Or are you trying to improve yourself?

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        Think back to my discussion on how I use swarm intelligence in my classroom.

        2. Document reality

        What does the current state of your group looks like?

        Ask key questions such as:

        • How does your team or organization collaborate?
        • What systems does your team or organization use to collaborate?
        • Do you find that you have to micromanage your team or organization? If so, why?
        • What do you see today?
        • What would you like to see tomorrow?

        Ask yourself the following questions if you seek to improve yourself:

        • Are you overwhelmed? If so, list the reasons why?
        • How do you organize your tasks?
        • What systems do you use to organize your tasks?
        • What are the most important things in your life?
        • What do you see today?
        • What would you like to see tomorrow?

        3. Use simple rules to collaborate and automate

        Identify 3-4 simple rules to collaborate and automate as a group or individual.

        For example, use free collaboration tools such as Slack as a way to improve the collective intelligence of a group (allowing it to emerge). Slack (Searchable Log of All Conversation and Knowledge) is a cloud-based collaboration tool that you can use to allow your group to improve without the need to micromanage them.

        Slack is offered as a free and paid tool (I recommend sticking with the free version for most groups). Here’s what it offers:

        • Persistent chat rooms (channels) organized by topic.
        • Private groups and direct messaging.
        • All content within Slack is searchable (including files, conversations, and people).
        • Integrates third-party services and supports community-built integrations.
        • Major integrations services include the following: Google Drive, Trello, Dropbox, GitHub, Twitter, Google Calendar, Google+ Hangouts, IFTTT, RSS, Microsoft OneDrive, Box, and more.

        Let’s now look at an example of simple rules to use within Slack.

          • Rule #1: Your group interacts locally with each other in a decentralized environment. Slack is your launching point for discussion and collaboration.
            Action – Download Slack over the web and/or smartphone application.
          • Rule #2: Your group analyze and synthesize concepts and solve problems together increasing the collective knowledge of the group. Your group can easily create, upload, and share ideas/documents within Slack. Additionally, using apps within Slack (such as Trello) your group can track a project or concept from start to finish without ever leaving Slack.
            Action – Create a workspace and channels within Slack. Then add members of your group (very easy process).
          • Rule #3: Your group reacts and adapts to changes without asking for permission (or without the need for micromanagement) by collaborating with one another (think back to my discussion on the AFC Loop from earlier).
            Action – Find “the pass” within your group (discussed below). This is the optimal location where you can examine the collaboration of the group.

          Watch the following video for more information about Slack:

          Step 4. Use simple rules to collaborate and automate

          If you seek to improve yourself, let’s look at an example using IFTTT.

          IFTTT (If This Then That) is a free web-based and app service that creates chains of simple conditional statements called applets.

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            An applet is something that is triggered by a change within a service (such as: Instagram, Gmail, or Facebook).

            IFTTT is a way for you (as an individual) to automate simple tasks in your life so you can focus on the more important things.

            IFTTT is also a way to automate or create what is called a “Recipe” to link services through a Trigger and an Action. You can automate just about anything using IFTTT.

            Let’s look at 10 examples of some of the best IFTTT Recipes:[7]

            1. Sync your Facebook and Twitter profiles.
            2. Send live updates from Twitter to a Slack Channel.
            3. Add scheduled events to Google Calendar.
            4. Automatically schedule daily or weekly recurring Trello Cards.
            5. Submit/automate expense reminder and/or spreadsheets.
            6. Track your work hours in Google Calendar.
            7. Receive e-mail digest of the week’s most popular business articles from the New York Times.
            8. Automatically e-mail yourself 10 Things to Know This Morning (just an example).
            9. Send weather updates to yourself at specific times of the day.
            10. Send notifications to yourself regarding the ideal travel times and routes.

            So, what are some simple rules you can use?

            Here we will apply Warren Buffet’s 5/25 Rule:

            • Rule #1: Identify your most important or top 25 goals in your life.
            • Rule #2: Circle the top 5 goals. These are your most important (big picture) goals for which you cannot automate. They must be your primary focus.
            • Rule #3: Use IFTTT to automate the remaining 20 goals.
            • Rule #4: Forget about anything else. Focus on your top 5 goals, automate the remaining 20 using IFTTT, then forget about anything else.

            Watch the following video for more information about IFTTT:

            Summing it up

            Finally, let’s conclude with one of my favorite learning/feedback examples discussed in Flock Not Clock – The best chef (the executive chef or CEO) doesn’t do any of the cooking:

            “Seems like a paradox, right? If she’s not cooking, what is she doing? She’s standing at the pass, expediting, prioritizing, and communicating orders as they come in; exercising quality control by ensuring that the fish isn’t overcooked, the side dish is ample, and the final plating of the dish is aesthetically pleasing. She monitors the plates as they are being bussed and returned – are they clean or barely touched? Are they returned with a complaint?

            Finally, the executive chef’s most important job is to ensure the sous, meat, sides, and pastry chefs learn. She knows that the safety of her stars rest not on her own ability to cook, but on her team’s ability to meet her exacting standards. When leaders focus on learning, they communicate that it’s an organizational priority and build and incentive a culture of learning.”

            So, how can you create a thriving organization using swarm intelligence?

            Simply follow the Cabrera’s advice and figure out what “the pass” looks like in your organization and lead from it.

            Featured photo credit: Unsplash via unsplash.com

            Reference

            [1] Eric Bonabeau, Marco Dorigo, and Guy Therauluz: Swarm Intelligence From Natural to Artificial Systems: Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity
            [2] Derek an Laura Cabrera: Flock Not Clock
            [3] Singularity: Human Swarming and the future of Collective Intelligence
            [4] Louis Rosenberg: Human Swarming and the future of Collective Intelligence
            [5] Balaji Alagurajan: Flipping the Classroom in ELT Context: International Journal of Scientific Research and Review
            [6] Schwandt: Swarming the Classroom
            [7] Harry Guinness: 15 Best IFTTT Recipes for Productive Business Automation

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            Dr. Jamie Schwandt

            Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt & Red Team Critical Thinker

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            Last Updated on March 25, 2020

            How Do You Change a Habit (According to Psychology)

            How Do You Change a Habit (According to Psychology)

            Habits are hard to kill, and rightly so. They are a part and parcel of your personality traits and mold your character.

            However, habits are not always something over-the-top and quirky enough to get noticed. Think of subtle habits like tapping fingers when you are nervous and humming songs while you drive. These are nothing but ingrained habits that you may not realize easily.

            Just take a few minutes and think of something specific that you do all the time. You will notice how it has become a habit for you without any explicit realization. Everything you do on a daily basis starting with your morning routine, lunch preferences to exercise routines are all habits.

            Habits mostly form from life experiences and certain observed behaviors, not all of them are healthy. Habitual smoking can be dangerous to your health. Similarly, a habit could also make you lose out on enjoying something to its best – like how some people just cannot stop swaying their bodies when delivering a speech.

            Thus, there could be a few habits that you would want to change about yourself. But changing habits is not as easy as it seems.

            In this article, you will learn why it isn’t easy to build new habits, and how to change habits.

            What Makes It Hard To Change A Habit?

            To want to change a particular habit means to change something very fundamental about your behavior.[1] Hence, it’s necessary to understand how habits actually form and why they are so difficult to actually get out of.

            The Biology

            Habits form in a place what we call the subconscious mind in our brain.[2]

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            Our brains have two modes of operation. The first one is an automatic pilot kind of system that is fast and works on reflexes often. It is what we call the subconscious part. This is the part that is associated with everything that comes naturally to you.

            The second mode is the conscious mode where every action and decision is well thought out and follows a controlled way of thinking.

            A fine example to distinguish both would be to consider yourself learning to drive or play an instrument. For the first time you try learning, you think before every movement you make. But once you have got the hang of it, you might drive without applying much thought into it.

            Both systems work together in our brains at all times. When a habit is formed, it moves from the conscious part to the subconscious making it difficult to control.

            So, the key idea in deconstructing a habit is to go from the subconscious to the conscious.

            Another thing you have to understand about habits is that they can be conscious or hidden.

            Conscious habits are those that require active input from your side. For instance, if you stop setting your alarm in the morning, you will stop waking up at the same time.

            Hidden habits, on the other hand, are habits that we do without realizing. These make up the majority of our habits and we wouldn’t even know them until someone pointed them out. So the first difficulty in breaking these habits is to actually identify them. As they are internalized, they need a lot of attention to detail for self-identification. That’s not all.

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            Habits can be physical, social, and mental, energy-based and even be particular to productivity. Understanding them is necessary to know why they are difficult to break and what can be done about them.

            The Psychology

            Habits get engraved into our memories depending on the way we think, feel and act over a particular period of time. The procedural part of memory deals with habit formation and studies have observed that various types of conditioning of behavior could affect your habit formations.

            Classical conditioning or pavlovian conditioning is when you start associating a memory with reality.[3] A dog that associates ringing bell to food will start salivating. The same external stimuli such as the sound of church bells can make a person want to pray.

            Operant conditioning is when experience and the feelings associated with it form a habit.[4] By encouraging or discouraging an act, individuals could either make it a habit or stop doing it.

            Observational learning is another way habits could take form. A child may start walking the same way their parent does.

            What Can You Do To Change a Habit?

            Sure, habits are hard to control but it is not impossible. With a few tips and hard-driven dedication, you can surely get over your nasty habits.

            Here are some ways that make use of psychological findings to help you:

            1. Identify Your Habits

            As mentioned earlier, habits can be quite subtle and hidden from your view. You have to bring your subconscious habits to an aware state of mind. You could do it by self-observation or by asking your friends or family to point out the habit for your sake.

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            2. Find out the Impact of Your Habit

            Every habit produces an effect – either physical or mental. Find out what exactly it is doing to you. Does it help you relieve stress or does it give you some pain relief?

            It could be anything simple. Sometimes biting your nails could be calming your nerves. Understanding the effect of a habit is necessary to control it.

            3. Apply Logic

            You don’t need to be force-fed with wisdom and advice to know what an unhealthy habit could do to you.

            Late-night binge-watching just before an important presentation is not going to help you. Take a moment and apply your own wisdom and logic to control your seemingly nastily habits.

            4. Choose an Alternative

            As I said, every habit induces some feeling. So, it could be quite difficult to get over it unless you find something else that can replace it. It can be a simple non-harming new habit that you can cultivate to get over a bad habit.

            Say you have the habit of banging your head hard when you are angry. That’s going to be bad for you. Instead, the next time you are angry, just take a deep breath and count to 10. Or maybe start imagining yourself on a luxury yacht. Just think of something that will work for you.

            5. Remove Triggers

            Get rid of items and situations that can trigger your bad habit.

            Stay away from smoke breaks if you are trying to quit it. Remove all those candy bars from the fridge if you want to control your sweet cravings.

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            6. Visualize Change

            Our brains can be trained to forget a habit if we start visualizing the change. Serious visualization is retained and helps as a motivator in breaking the habit loop.

            For instance, to replace your habit of waking up late, visualize yourself waking up early and enjoying the early morning jog every day. By continuing this, you would naturally feel better to wake up early and do your new hobby.

            7. Avoid Negative Talks and Thinking

            Just as how our brain is trained to accept a change in habit, continuous negative talk and thinking could hamper your efforts put into breaking a habit.

            Believe you can get out of it and assert yourself the same.

            Final Thoughts

            Changing habits isn’t easy, so do not expect an overnight change!

            Habits took a long time to form. It could take a while to completely break out of it. You will have to accept that sometimes you may falter in your efforts. Don’t let negativity seep in when it seems hard. Keep going at it slowly and steadily.

            More About Changing Habits

            Featured photo credit: Mel via unsplash.com

            Reference

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