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How to Avoid Micromanagement with Swarm Intelligence (Step-By-Step Guide )

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How to Avoid Micromanagement with Swarm Intelligence (Step-By-Step Guide )

Have you ever wondered how a flock of birds interact so brilliantly? Or how ants and termites build fascinating colonies?

More importantly, have you ever wondered how your organization could mimic a flock of birds or an ant colony to create a thriving organization without having to micro-manage every little detail?

What is Swarm Intelligence?

First introduced by Gerardo Beni and Jing Wang in 1989, swarm intelligence is the collective behavior of decentralized, self-organized systems, for which social insects are one of the best examples.

    Swarm intelligence is an attempt to design algorithms or distributed problem-solving devices intended to mimic the collective behavior of social insect colonies.[1]

    Essentially, swarm intelligence improves our collective behaviors (our outputs).

    Derek and Laura Cabrera, systems theorists and professors at Cornell University compare this to a game of chess in Flock Not Clock,

    “The game of chess has simple enough rules for a child to master, yet there are 318 billion possible ways to play the first four moves. The behaviors (or outputs) of systems – be they a flock of starlings or biodiversity writ large, chess matches or organizations – are emergent properties of simple rules at the local level. By identifying, understanding, and applying these simple rules, we can make the outputs better.”

    Let’s look at an example of how these simple rules work for an ant colony:

    Simple rules outlined by the Cabrera’s allow social insects (such as ants) to become a superorganism. These simple rules are as follows:[2]

    1. Look for food. Ants randomly forage for food.
    2. If you find food, shoot pheromones. A few find food and communicate by leaving a pheromone trail increasing probability of collective action on food piles.
    3. Never cross a pheromone trail. Self-organizing behavior around simple rules produces collective intelligence.

    How to identify simple rules that work

    The Cabrera’s have defined four simple and deeply connected rules that apply in all types of organizations: Vision (V), Mission (M), Capacity (C), Learning (L).

    1. Vision (V): Your desired future state or goal (what do you see?). For example, ask the following: What do you see today? What should you see tomorrow?
    2. Mission (M): Repeatable actions that bring out the vision (what do you do?).
    3. Capacity (C): Systems that provide readiness to execute the mission (how do we align capacity?). Here you build capacity to do the mission.
    4. Learning (L): Continuous improvement of systems of capacity based on feedback from the external environment (love of learning). For example, the Cabrera’s explain that a big part of learning is making people aware of the lens through which they perceive reality.

    Why Swarm Intelligence matters to your team

      Dr. Louis Rosenberg (founder of Unanimous AI) informs us that we (as individuals) are smart, yet as a group we are even smarter – we are able to amplify our intelligence.

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      “A brain is a system of neurons so deeply interconnected that an intelligence forms. A swarm is a system of brains so deeply interconnected that a super-intelligence forms. Simply put, a swarm is a brain of brains and it can be smarter than any individual member.” – Dr. Louis Rosenberg

      In Human Swarming and the future of Collective Intelligence, Rosenberg discusses the potential of human swarming. He writes,[3]

      If we consider the leap in intelligence between an individual ant and a full ant colony working as one, can we expect the same level of amplification as we go from single individual humans to an elevated ‘hyper-mind’ that emerges from real-time human swarming?

      So, can humans swarm?

      Yes.

      How can humans swarm?

      According to Rosenberg, technology is the key. Humans can swarm only if we develop technologies that fill in missing pieces of evolution that hasn’t yet been provided.[4]

      Rosenberg developed a platform allowing swarms of online users to make decisions and answer questions together by moving a graphical puck. The puck is generated by a central server and modeled as a real-world physical system.

      Watch the following video to see how this platform works:

      How I Swarm the classroom (a case study)

      I have recently examined some of the innovative ways educators try to improve the learning environment. One such way is through “flipping the classroom.” This is a teaching pedagogy which reverses old classroom teaching through a form of blended learning using modern technology and practical application.[5]

      While a flipped classroom is an excellent approach to education, I feel as though we need to take it a step further and allow the classroom to “flip itself” and emerge on its own. Our classroom should be a complex adaptive system (CAS) with no set leader. It should use simple rules to guide it.

      I am currently using the following simple rules for an online course I teach at Fort Hays State University (FHSU) in Hays, Kansas: [6]

      Rule #1. Students interact locally with each other in a decentralized environment.

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      I use a free decision-making software called Loomio that allows my students to move past the typically discussion board thread. My students use Loomio as a launching point for the creation of systems diagrams/maps.

      I also use Loomio to build a complex adaptive syllabus by proposing or collaborating on decision tools within Loomio.

      Rule #2. Students analyze and synthesize concepts and share mental models, increasing the collective knowledge of the group.

      Using the Cabrera’s DSRP Theory -Distinctions, Systems, Relationships, and Perspectives, my students are able to break apart concepts and put them back together using two powerful platforms (also developed by the Cabrera’s!).

      First, my class uses Thinkquiry to help them develop and ask questions that penetrate deeper into a concept. They use these guiding questions to start breaking apart and rebuilding a concept.

      Second, my students then use Plectica to break apart and rebuild concepts. My students build concept maps using Plectica (free – I use it daily!) by visually organizing parts that can be combined and connected to each other to form a more complete picture.

      Rule #3. Students react and adapt to changes without asking for permission by forming systems with immediate Action-Feedback-Change (AFC) Loops.

        The most optimal way to improve is to intuitively act, recognize that we are constantly receiving feedback from reality when our mental models crash into reality, and change by forming new mental models.

        Thus, I developed the continuous Action-Feedback-Change (AFC) Loop designed to help me understand how we improve and adapt (as individuals and as a group).

        How to use Swarm Intelligence to make your team strive (Step-by-step guide)

        So, how can you use this information? How can you apply it as an individual or a group?

        It’s actually quite simple.

        1. Identify your goal

        Are you trying to improve the collective intelligence of a group? Or are you trying to improve yourself?

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        Think back to my discussion on how I use swarm intelligence in my classroom.

        2. Document reality

        What does the current state of your group looks like?

        Ask key questions such as:

        • How does your team or organization collaborate?
        • What systems does your team or organization use to collaborate?
        • Do you find that you have to micromanage your team or organization? If so, why?
        • What do you see today?
        • What would you like to see tomorrow?

        Ask yourself the following questions if you seek to improve yourself:

        • Are you overwhelmed? If so, list the reasons why?
        • How do you organize your tasks?
        • What systems do you use to organize your tasks?
        • What are the most important things in your life?
        • What do you see today?
        • What would you like to see tomorrow?

        3. Use simple rules to collaborate and automate

        Identify 3-4 simple rules to collaborate and automate as a group or individual.

        For example, use free collaboration tools such as Slack as a way to improve the collective intelligence of a group (allowing it to emerge). Slack (Searchable Log of All Conversation and Knowledge) is a cloud-based collaboration tool that you can use to allow your group to improve without the need to micromanage them.

        Slack is offered as a free and paid tool (I recommend sticking with the free version for most groups). Here’s what it offers:

        • Persistent chat rooms (channels) organized by topic.
        • Private groups and direct messaging.
        • All content within Slack is searchable (including files, conversations, and people).
        • Integrates third-party services and supports community-built integrations.
        • Major integrations services include the following: Google Drive, Trello, Dropbox, GitHub, Twitter, Google Calendar, Google+ Hangouts, IFTTT, RSS, Microsoft OneDrive, Box, and more.

        Let’s now look at an example of simple rules to use within Slack.

          • Rule #1: Your group interacts locally with each other in a decentralized environment. Slack is your launching point for discussion and collaboration.
            Action – Download Slack over the web and/or smartphone application.
          • Rule #2: Your group analyze and synthesize concepts and solve problems together increasing the collective knowledge of the group. Your group can easily create, upload, and share ideas/documents within Slack. Additionally, using apps within Slack (such as Trello) your group can track a project or concept from start to finish without ever leaving Slack.
            Action – Create a workspace and channels within Slack. Then add members of your group (very easy process).
          • Rule #3: Your group reacts and adapts to changes without asking for permission (or without the need for micromanagement) by collaborating with one another (think back to my discussion on the AFC Loop from earlier).
            Action – Find “the pass” within your group (discussed below). This is the optimal location where you can examine the collaboration of the group.

          Watch the following video for more information about Slack:

          Step 4. Use simple rules to collaborate and automate

          If you seek to improve yourself, let’s look at an example using IFTTT.

          IFTTT (If This Then That) is a free web-based and app service that creates chains of simple conditional statements called applets.

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            An applet is something that is triggered by a change within a service (such as: Instagram, Gmail, or Facebook).

            IFTTT is a way for you (as an individual) to automate simple tasks in your life so you can focus on the more important things.

            IFTTT is also a way to automate or create what is called a “Recipe” to link services through a Trigger and an Action. You can automate just about anything using IFTTT.

            Let’s look at 10 examples of some of the best IFTTT Recipes:[7]

            1. Sync your Facebook and Twitter profiles.
            2. Send live updates from Twitter to a Slack Channel.
            3. Add scheduled events to Google Calendar.
            4. Automatically schedule daily or weekly recurring Trello Cards.
            5. Submit/automate expense reminder and/or spreadsheets.
            6. Track your work hours in Google Calendar.
            7. Receive e-mail digest of the week’s most popular business articles from the New York Times.
            8. Automatically e-mail yourself 10 Things to Know This Morning (just an example).
            9. Send weather updates to yourself at specific times of the day.
            10. Send notifications to yourself regarding the ideal travel times and routes.

            So, what are some simple rules you can use?

            Here we will apply Warren Buffet’s 5/25 Rule:

            • Rule #1: Identify your most important or top 25 goals in your life.
            • Rule #2: Circle the top 5 goals. These are your most important (big picture) goals for which you cannot automate. They must be your primary focus.
            • Rule #3: Use IFTTT to automate the remaining 20 goals.
            • Rule #4: Forget about anything else. Focus on your top 5 goals, automate the remaining 20 using IFTTT, then forget about anything else.

            Watch the following video for more information about IFTTT:

            Summing it up

            Finally, let’s conclude with one of my favorite learning/feedback examples discussed in Flock Not Clock – The best chef (the executive chef or CEO) doesn’t do any of the cooking:

            “Seems like a paradox, right? If she’s not cooking, what is she doing? She’s standing at the pass, expediting, prioritizing, and communicating orders as they come in; exercising quality control by ensuring that the fish isn’t overcooked, the side dish is ample, and the final plating of the dish is aesthetically pleasing. She monitors the plates as they are being bussed and returned – are they clean or barely touched? Are they returned with a complaint?

            Finally, the executive chef’s most important job is to ensure the sous, meat, sides, and pastry chefs learn. She knows that the safety of her stars rest not on her own ability to cook, but on her team’s ability to meet her exacting standards. When leaders focus on learning, they communicate that it’s an organizational priority and build and incentive a culture of learning.”

            So, how can you create a thriving organization using swarm intelligence?

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            Simply follow the Cabrera’s advice and figure out what “the pass” looks like in your organization and lead from it.

            Featured photo credit: Unsplash via unsplash.com

            Reference

            [1] Eric Bonabeau, Marco Dorigo, and Guy Therauluz: Swarm Intelligence From Natural to Artificial Systems: Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity
            [2] Derek an Laura Cabrera: Flock Not Clock
            [3] Singularity: Human Swarming and the future of Collective Intelligence
            [4] Louis Rosenberg: Human Swarming and the future of Collective Intelligence
            [5] Balaji Alagurajan: Flipping the Classroom in ELT Context: International Journal of Scientific Research and Review
            [6] Schwandt: Swarming the Classroom
            [7] Harry Guinness: 15 Best IFTTT Recipes for Productive Business Automation

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            Last Updated on October 7, 2021

            Are You Addicted to Productivity?

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            Are You Addicted to Productivity?

            “It’s great to be productive. It really is. But sometimes, we chase productivity so much that it makes us, well, unproductive. It’s easy to read a lot about how to be more productive, but don’t forget that you have to make that time up.”

            Matt Cutts wrote that back in 2013,[1]

            “Today, search for ‘productivity’ and Google will come back with about 663,000,000 results. If you decide to go down this rabbit hole, you’ll be bombarded by a seemingly endless amount of content. I’m talking about books, blogs, videos, apps, podcasts, scientific studies, and subreddits all dedicated to productivity.”

            Like so many other people, I’ve also fallen into this trap. For years I’ve been on the lookout for trends and hacks that will help me work faster and more efficiently — and also trends that help me help others to be faster. I’ve experimented with various strategies and tools . And, while some of these strategies and solutions have been extremely useful — without parsing out what you need quickly — it’s counterproductive.

            Sometimes you end up spending more time focusing on how to be productive instead of actually being productive.

            “The most productive people I know don’t read these books, they don’t watch these videos, they don’t try a new app every month,” James Bedell wrote in a Medium post.[2] “They are far too busy getting things done to read about Getting Things Done.”

            This is my mantra:

            I proudly say, “I am addicted to productivity — I want to be addicted to productivity — productivity is my life and my mission — and I also want to find the best way to lead others through productivity to their best selves.

            But most of the time productivity means putting your head down and working until the job’s done.” –John Rampton

            Addiction to Productivity is Real

            Dr. Sandra Chapman, director of the University of Texas at Dallas Center for BrainHealth points out that the brain can get addicted to productivity just as it can to more common sources of addiction, such as drugs, gambling, eating, and shopping.

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            “A person might crave the recognition their work gives them or the salary increases they get,” Chapman told the BBC.[3] “The problem is that just like all addictions, over time, a person needs more and more to be satisfied, and then it starts to work against you. Withdrawal symptoms include increased anxiety, depression, and fear.”

            Despite the harmful consequences, addiction is considered by some experts as a brain disease that affects the brain’s reward system and ends in compulsive behavior. Regardless, society tends to reward productivity — or at least to treat it positively. As a result, this makes the problem even worse.

            “It’s seen like a good thing: the more you work, the better,” adds Chapman. “Many people don’t realize the harm it causes until a divorce occurs and a family is broken apart, or the toll it takes on mental health.”

            Because of the occasional negative issues with productivity, it’s no surprise that it is considered a “mixed-blessing addiction.”

            “A workaholic might be earning a lot of money, just as an exercise addict is very fit,” explains Dr. Mark Griffiths, distinguished professor of behavioral addiction at Nottingham Trent University. “But the thing about any addiction is that in the long run, the detrimental effects outweigh any short-term benefits.”

            “There may be an initial period where the individual who is developing a work addiction is more productive than someone who isn’t addicted to work, but it will get to a point when they are no longer productive, and their health and relationships are affected,” Griffiths writes in Psychology Today.[4] “It could be after one year or more, but if the individual doesn’t do anything about it, they could end up having serious health consequences.”

            “For instance, I speculated that the consequences of work addiction may be reclassified as something else: If someone ends up dying of a work-related heart attack, it isn’t necessarily seen as having anything to do with an addiction per se – it might be attributed to something like burnout,” he adds.

            There Are Three “Distinct Extreme Productivity Types

            Cyril Peupion, a Sydney-based productivity expert, has observed extreme productivity among clients at both large and medium-sized companies. “Most people who come to me are high performers and very successful. But often, the word they use to describe their work style is ‘unsustainable,’ and they need help getting it back on track.”

            By changing their work habits, Peupion assists teams and individuals improve their performance and ensure that their efforts are aligned with the overarching strategy of the business, rather than focusing on work as a means to an end. He has distinguished three types of extreme productivity in his classification: efficiency obsessive, selfishly productive, and quantity-obsessed.

            Efficiency obsessive. “Their desks are super tidy and their pens are probably color-coded. They are the master of ‘inbox zero.’ But they have lost sight of the big picture, and don’t know the difference between efficiency and effectiveness.”

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            Selfishly productive. “They are so focused on their own world that if they are asked to do something outside of it, they aren’t interested. They do have the big picture in mind, but the picture is too much about them.”

            Quantity-obsessed. “They think; ‘The more emails I respond to, the more meetings I attend, the more tasks I do, the higher my performance.’ As a result, they face a real risk of burnout.”

            Peupion believes that “quantity obsessed” individuals are the most common type “because there is a pervasive belief that ‘more’ means ‘better’ at work.”

            The Warning Signs of Productivity Addiction

            Here are a few questions you should ask yourself if you think you may be succumbing to productivity addiction. After all, most of us aren’t aware of this until it’s too late.

            • Can you tell when you’re “wasting” time? If so, have you ever felt guilty about it?
            • Does technology play a big part in optimizing your time management?
            • Do you talk about how busy you are most of the time? In your opinion, is hustling better than doing less?
            • What is your relationship with your email inbox? Are you constantly checking it or experience phantom notifications?
            • When you only check one item off your list, do you feel guilty?
            • Does stress from work interfere with your sleep?
            • Have you been putting things off, like a vacation or side project, because you’re “too swamped?

            The first step toward turning around your productivity obsession is to recognize it. If you answered “yes” to any of the above questions, then it’s time to make a plan to overcome your addiction to productivity.

            Overcoming Your Productivity Addiction

            Thankfully, there are ways to curb your productivity addiction. And, here are 9 such ways to achieve that goal.

            1. Set Limits

            Just because you’re hooked on productivity doesn’t mean you have to completely abstain from it. Instead, you need to establish boundaries.

            For example, there are a lot of amazing productivity podcasts out there. But, that doesn’t mean you have to listen to them all in the course of a day. Instead, you could listen to one or two podcasts, like The Productivity Podcast or Before Breakfast, during your commute. And, that would be your only time of the day to get your productivity fix.

            2. Create a Not-to-Do List

            Essentially, the idea of a not-to-do list is to eliminate the need to practice self-discipline. Getting rid of low-value tasks and bad habits will allow you to focus on what you really want to do as opposed to weighing the pros and cons or declining time requests. More importantly, this prevents you from feeling guilty about not crossing everything off an unrealistic to-do list.

            3. Be Vulnerable

            By this, I mean admitting where you could improve. For example, if you’re new to remote work and are struggling with thi s, you would only focus on topics in this area. Suggestions would be how to create a workspace at home, not getting distracted when the kids aren’t in school, or improving remote communication and collaboration with others.

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            4. Understand Why You Procrastinate

            Often, we procrastinate to minimize negative emotions like boredom or stress. Other times it could be because it’s a learned trait, underestimating how long it takes you to complete something or having a bias towards a task.

            Regardless of the exact reason, we end up doing busy work, scrolling social media, or just watching one more episode of our favorite TV series. And, even though we know that it’s not for the best, we do things that make us feel better than the work we should do to restore our mood.[5]

            There are a lot of ways to overcome procrastination. But, the first step is to be aware of it so that you can take action. For example, if you’re dreading a difficult task, don’t just watch Netflix. Instead, procrastinate more efficiently,y like returning a phone call or working on a client pitch.

            5. Don’t Be a Copycat

            Let’s keep this short and sweet. When you find a productivity app or technique that works for you, stick with it.

            That’s not to say that you can’t make adjustments along the way or try new tools or hacks. However, the main takeaway should be that just because someone swears by the Pomodoro Technique doesn’t mean it’s a good fit for you.

            6. Say Yes to Less

            Across the board, your philosophy should be less is more.

            That means only download the apps you actually use and want to keep (after you try them out) and uninstall the ones you don’t use. For example, are you currently reading a book on productivity? Don’t buy your next book until you’ve finished the one you’re currently reading (or permit yourself to toss a book that isn’t doing you any good). — and if you really want to finish a book more quickly, listen to the book on your way to work and back.

            Already have plans this weekend? Don’t commit to a birthday party. And, if you’re day is booked, decline that last-minute meeting request.

            7. Stop Focusing on What’s Next

            “In the age when purchasing a thing from overseas is just one click and talking to another person is one swipe right, acquiring new objects or experiences can be addictive like anything else,” writes Patrick Banks for Lifehack .

            “That doesn’t need to be you,” he adds. “You can stop your addition to ‘the next thing’ starting today.” After all, “there will always be this next thing if you don’t make a conscious decision to get your life back together and be the one in charge.”

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            • Think about your current lifestyle and the person you’re at this stage to help you identify what you aren’t satisfied with.
            • By setting clear goals for yourself in the future, you will be able to overcome your addiction.
            • Establish realistic goals.
            • To combat addiction, you must be aware of what is going on around you, as well as inside your head, at any given time.
            • Don’t spend time with people who have unhealthy behaviors.
            • Hold yourself accountable.
            • Keep a journal and write out what you want to overcome.
            • Appreciate no longer being addicted to what’s next.

            8. Simplify

            Each day, pick one priority task. That’s it. As long as you concentrate on one task at a time, you will be less likely to get distracted or overwhelmed by an endless list of tasks. A simple mantra to live by is: work smarter, not harder.

            The same is also accurate with productivity hacks and tools. Bullet journaling is a great example. Unfortunately, for many, a bullet journal is way more time-consuming and overwhelming than a traditional planner.

            9. Learn How to Relax

            “Sure, we need to produce sometimes, especially if we have to pay the bills, but, banning obsession with productivity is unhealthy,” writes Leo Babauta. “When you can’t get yourself to be productive, relax.” Don’t worry about being hyper-efficient. And, don’t beat yourself up about having fun.

            “But what if you can’t motivate yourself … ever?” he asks. “Sure, that can be a problem. But if you relax and enjoy yourself, you’ll be happier.”

            “And if you work when you get excited, on things you’re excited about, and create amazing things, that’s motivation,” Leo states. “Not forcing yourself to work when you don’t want to, on things you don’t want to work on — motivation is doing things you love when you get excited.”

            But, how exactly can you relax? Here are some tips from Leo;

            • Spend 5 minutes walking outside and breathe in the fresh air.
            • Give yourself more time to accomplish things. Less rushing means less stress.
            • If you can, get outside after work to enjoy nature.
            • Play like a child. Even better? Play with your kids. And, have fun at work — maybe give gamification a try .
            • Take the day off, rest, and do something non-work-related.
            • Allow yourself an hour of time off. Try not to be productive during that time. Just relax.
            • You should work with someone who is exciting. Make your project exciting.
            • Don’t work in the evenings. Seriously.
            • Visit a massage therapist.
            • Just breathe.

            “Step by step, learn to relax,” he suggests. “Learn that productivity isn’t everything.” For that statement, sorry Leo, I say productivity isn’t everything — it’s the only thing.” However, if you can’t cut loose, relax, do fun things, and do the living part of your life — you’ll crack in a big way — you really will.

            It’s great to create and push forward — just remember it doesn’t mean that every minute must be spent working or obsessing over productivity issues. Instead, invest your time in meaningful, high-impact work, get into it, focus, put in big time and then relax.

            Are You Addicted to Productivity? was originally published on Calendar by John Rampton.

            Featured photo credit: Christina @ wocintechchat.com via unsplash.com

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            Reference

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