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How to Have Einstein’s Brain Even If You’re Not a Natural Born Genius

How to Have Einstein’s Brain Even If You’re Not a Natural Born Genius

Do you ever find yourself having to read an article several times before it makes sense? How about having to revisit online tutorials again and again because they just won’t stick?

Don’t worry… you’re not alone and you’re in the right place.

In this article, we’re going to take a look at Cognitive Load Theory and discover how we can use it to make learning easier and start retaining everything in a single sitting.

Similar to the way athletes leverage the body’s processes to improve sports performance, we can leverage the way the brain processes information to make complex concepts easier to grasp. With that said… let’s get into a complex concept.

The 3 Essential Stages for Our Memory to Stick

There are several theoretic models that attempt to explain how the mind processes information. One of the most prominent is the Atkinson–Shiffrin model[1], published in 1968. According to this model, external information has to journey through three stages of our memory in order to stick.

These three stages are:

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  1. Sensory memory – a filter which discards unnecessary information
  2. Working memory – a gateway to the long-term memory, passing on information via repetition and schemas (explained below)
  3. Long-term memory – where information sticks

To complete the explanation above, a schema is simply a way to organise multiple memories into a single entity through classification and association. Once information is sorted into schemas it’s changed from something abstract to something familiar, connected and easy to recall.

Just Imagine You’re in a Cafe, and Here’s How the 3 Stages Work in Your Brain

You’re in a café, sipping on a cappuccino whilst reading an article about the discovery of a new, strange animal.

Your sensory memory filters out the background noise of the café, the taste of the coffee and the smell of the food, and allows you to retain the information about this new animal.

Next, your working memory searches existing schemas in your long-term memory for anything resembling the animal… and it finds a close match.

The animal is similar to a cat, so it’s added to your cat schema and enters into your long-term memory.

So What Exactly Is the Cognitive Load Theory?

First published by John Sweller in the Journal of Cognitive Science[2], Cognitive Load Theory builds upon the foundation outlined above by focusing on the capacity of the working memory.

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According to Cognitive Load Theory, our working memory only has a capacity of five to nine items [3]. Therefore, for us to learn, we have to avoid memory overload.

Fortunately, this theory also identifies two handy ways to extend the working memory and maximise learning.

The Modality Effect

Auditory and visual information are processed separately in the mind and are able to exist side by side in the working memory without claiming double the space. This is called The Modality Effect.

The Modality Effect explains why slideshows accompanied by narration have become the staple of lectures and presentations worldwide. What would happen if the narration was written onto the slides instead of being spoken? Yes, information overload.

Leverage Existing Knowledge

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New information delivered in a way that builds upon existing ideas and concepts (schemas) is easier to make sense of and retain. This means that the sequence of information is important. Simple, familiar topics should come before more complex, new ones.

5 Strategies to Make the Most out of The Cognitive Load Theory

By applying Cognitive Load Theory to our learning we can avoid information overload and absorb new information more quickly, with less stress.

Identify your existing knowledge

Before you start studying a new topic take a few minutes to run over what you already know. Make connections between your existing knowledge and the new topic. This will maximise the chance that you’ll leverage existing knowledge on the subject and also make building on existing schemas easier.

Avoid obsessing about goals

Goals are important, but sometimes focusing on them too much ruins the learning process. When our mind thinks too far ahead, it loads our working memory and makes us less able to process new information. By focusing on learning and letting go of goals, at least temporarily, we allow ourselves to learn at our optimum rate.

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Focus on one thing at a time

The saying “you can’t serve two masters at the same time” holds true when it comes to learning. Switching between multiple sources of similar information, such as two visual items, uses a lot of cognitive load. To avoid this, focus on one source at a time or find a way to combine them together.

Use audiovisual media

By incorporating both streams of information, audio and visual, we harness The Modality Effect and are able to benefit from peak cognitive load without tipping into information overload.

Reduce unnecessary information

Make the sensory memory’s job easier by removing distractions in the environment. For example, if you’re listening to a podcast on your train ride to work then try closing your eyes or, better still, making notes to bring in a visual element and take advantage of The Modality Effect.

No longer do we need to experience the frustration that comes with information overload. Armed with Cognitive Load Theory and the strategies in this article, we’re able to become better learners and more effective teachers.

Reference

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Oliver Braithwaite

Founder/CEO of Stars & Catz

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Last Updated on September 11, 2019

Why To-Do Lists Don’t Work (And How to Change That)

Why To-Do Lists Don’t Work (And How to Change That)

How often do you feel overwhelmed and disorganized in life, whether at work or home? We all seem to struggle with time management in some area of our life; one of the most common phrases besides “I love you” is “I don’t have time”. Everyone suggests working from a to-do list to start getting your life more organized, but why do these lists also have a negative connotation to them?

Let’s say you have a strong desire to turn this situation around with all your good intentions—you may then take out a piece of paper and pen to start tackling this intangible mess with a to-do list. What usually happens, is that you either get so overwhelmed seeing everything on your list, which leaves you feeling worse than you did before, or you make the list but are completely stuck on how to execute it effectively.

To-do lists can work for you, but if you are not using them effectively, they can actually leave you feeling more disillusioned and stressed than you did before. Think of a filing system: the concept is good, but if you merely file papers away with no structure or system, the filing system will have an adverse effect. It’s the same with to-do lists—you can put one together, but if you don’t do it right, it is a fruitless exercise.

Why Some People Find That General To-Do Lists Don’t Work?

Most people find that general to-do lists don’t work because:

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  • They get so overwhelmed just by looking at all the things they need to do.
  • They don’t know how to prioritize the items on list.
  • They feel that they are continuously adding to their list but not reducing it.
  • There’s a sense of confusion seeing home tasks mixed with work tasks.

Benefits of Using a To-Do List

However, there are many advantages working from a to-do list:

  • You have clarity on what you need to get done.
  • You will feel less stressed because all your ‘to do’s are on paper and out of your mind.
  • It helps you to prioritize your actions.
  • You don’t overlook so many tasks and forget anything.
  • You feel more organized.
  • It helps you with planning.

4 Golden Rules to Make a To-Do List Work

Here are my golden rules for making a “to-do” list work:

1. Categorize

Studies have shown that your brain gets overwhelmed when it sees a list of 7 or 8 options; it wants to shut down.[1] For this reason, you need to work from different lists. Separate them into different categories and don’t have more than 7 or 8 tasks on each one.

It might work well for you to have a “project” list, a “follow-up” list, and a “don’t forget” list; you will know what will work best for you, as these titles will be different for everybody.

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2. Add Estimations

You don’t merely need to know what has to be done, but how long it will take as well in order to plan effectively.

Imagine on your list you have one task that will take 30 minutes, another that could take 1 hour, and another that could take 4 hours. You need to know the moment you look at the task, otherwise you undermine your planning, so add an extra column to your list and include your estimation of how long you think the task will take, and be realistic!

Tip: If you find it a challenge to estimate accurately, then start by building this skill on a daily basis. Estimate how long it will take to get ready, cook dinner, go for a walk, etc., and then compare this to the actual time it took you. You will start to get more accurate in your estimations.

3. Prioritize

To effectively select what you should work on, you need to take into consideration: priority, sequence and estimated time. Add another column to your list for priority. Divide your tasks into four categories:

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  • Important and urgent
  • Not urgent but important
  • Not important but urgent
  • Not important or urgent

You want to work on tasks that are urgent and important of course, but also, select some tasks that are important and not urgent. Why? Because these tasks are normally related to long-term goals, and when you only work on tasks that are urgent and important, you’ll feel like your day is spent putting out fires. You’ll end up neglecting other important areas which most often end up having negative consequences.

Most of your time should be spent on the first two categories.

4.  Review

To make this list work effectively for you, it needs to become a daily tool that you use to manage your time and you review it regularly. There is no point in only having the list to record everything that you need to do, but you don’t utilize it as part of your bigger time management plan.

For example: At the end of every week, review the list and use it to plan the week ahead. Select what you want to work on taking into consideration priority, time and sequence and then schedule these items into your calendar. Golden rule in planning: don’t schedule more than 75% of your time.

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Bottom Line

So grab a pen and paper and give yourself the gift of a calm and clear mind by unloading everything in there and onto a list as now, you have all the tools you need for it to work. Knowledge is useless unless it is applied—how badly do you want more time?

To your success!

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Featured photo credit: Emma Matthews via unsplash.com

Reference

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