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Scientists Say This Is Probably the Real Reason Why People Have Addiction

Scientists Say This Is Probably the Real Reason Why People Have Addiction

$700 billion a year. Yes, that is the whopping bill the USA has to fork out because of addiction every year. This is the cost in terms of health care, lost working days to the nation for addiction to drugs, alcohol and smoking, just to name a few. What is the solution? The first step would be to understand what really causes addiction and what is the latest scientific explanation for this. Secondly, we could look at the role of decriminalization of drugs and how this may lead to a safer and healthier society.

Why do people get addicted?

The problem arises when the pleasurable activities such as sex, food, gambling or use of drugs and alcohol becomes compulsive and starts to interfere with work, health and relationships. It is interesting to note that in the early 1930s addiction to alcohol and other substances was seen as having a lack of willpower or character. But now scientists are investigating the real cause of addiction and their results are surprising, to say the least.

One view is that people become addicted to a substance or behavior because it gives them some comfort or relief from some sort of psychological stress. Alcohol can give a sense of euphoria in the short term especially when anxiety and depression are present. The long term effects are damaging to health. Even more troubling is that the addiction prevents the sufferer from looking for the cause and in seeking treatment.

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Researchers have homed in on the lateral habenula region of the brain which governs whether we see something as being rewarding or having too many negative consequences. Experiments with rats seem to indicate that is one of the areas of the brain affected by alcohol, but more studies need to be done.

More rat experiments in the 1980s got a lot of publicity from ads which were run by the Partnership for a Drug-Free America (PDFA). Here, one lone rat was put into a cage with two bottles, one containing water and the other a mix of water and cocaine. The rat became addicted to the drugged water, kept on coming back for more and then died. The advert then warns:

“Only one drug is so addictive, nine out of ten laboratory rats will use it. And use it. And use it. Until dead. It’s called cocaine. And it can do the same thing to you.”

The message was clear that there were strong chemical agents which were causing the craving and addiction. You can see some of the PDFA ads which were broadcast in 1987 here. Chemical agents could not explain an addiction to gambling, however.

The view from Rat Park

But Professor Bruce Alexander of Simon Fraser University and author of The Globalisation of Addiction: A study in poverty of the spirit, was not so sure. He started experiments with the famous Rat Park.

He put some rats in solitary confinement with a water bottle and another with a mix of drugs. Then for another group of rats, he created Rat Park. This was an ideal environment for them where they had exercise wheels, balls to play with and great food. The researchers noticed that the rats in solitary were addicted to the cocaine mix while the rats in Rat Park hardly touched the stuff and were extremely happy and contented. None of them died.

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Alexander’s crucial question was whether humans might be similar to the rats. Could one’s environment and psychological state really determine whether a person would become addicted or not? Unfortunately, the impact of the study on the theory of addiction was almost nil and Rat Park was closed.

The questions that need answers.

People on medication do not become addicted whereas the typical street addict is hooked for life, unless he or she seeks rehab. Could it really be just due to the fact humans need to bond and receive affection from a loving and caring environment? The figures from the return of the Vietnam War veterans would seem to support this theory.

It is a well known fact that about 20% of these soldiers were heroin or cocaine addicts. But after they returned home, a whopping 95% of these addicted soldiers simply gave up the habit. Only a tiny number actually needed rehab. Like the rats in the cage, they had no need of any drugs once they were back in a safer and more caring environment. We cannot imagine a more terrifying cage than war!

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Is decriminalization the answer?

Look at what Portugal did. In the year 2000, the government decided to decriminalize drug use. They wanted to treat drug addicts, rather than punish them. Now, more than 10 years later, the drug use ratio has fallen by 50%. Of course, more innovative treatment methods and reducing some of the risk factors played a part in this turnaround.

This may well be the way forward. The vast sums of money spent in chasing, arresting, trying and imprisoning drug users was used in helping drug users to reconnect with society again and to help give them a purpose in life. In other words, they have helped them get out of their solitary confinement cage.

More by this author

Robert Locke

Author of Ziger the Tiger Stories, a health enthusiast specializing in relationships, life improvement and mental health.

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Last Updated on September 18, 2020

7 Simple Rules to Live by to Get in Shape in Two Weeks

7 Simple Rules to Live by to Get in Shape in Two Weeks

Learning how to get in shape and set goals is important if you’re looking to live a healthier lifestyle and get closer to your goal weight. While this does require changes to your daily routine, you’ll find that you are able to look and feel better in only two weeks.

Over the years, I’ve learned a lot about what it takes to get in shape. Although anyone can cover the basics (eat right and exercise), there are some things that I could only learn through trial and error. Let’s cover some of the most important points for how to get in shape in two weeks.

1. Exercise Daily

It is far easier to make exercise a habit if it is a daily one. If you aren’t exercising at all, I recommend starting by exercising a half hour every day. When you only exercise a couple times per week, it is much easier to turn one day off into three days off, a week off, or a month off.

If you are already used to exercising, switching to three or four times a week to fit your schedule may be preferable, but it is a lot harder to maintain a workout program you don’t do every day.

Be careful to not repeat the same exercise routine each day. If you do an intense ab workout one day, try switching it up to general cardio the next. You can also squeeze in a day of light walking to break up the intensity.

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If you’re a morning person, check out these morning exercises that will start your day off right.

2. Duration Doesn’t Substitute for Intensity

Once you get into the habit of regular exercise, where do you go if you still aren’t reaching your goals? Most people will solve the problem by exercising for longer periods of time, turning forty-minute workouts into two hour stretches. Not only does this drain your time, but it doesn’t work particularly well.

One study shows that “exercising for a whole hour instead of a half does not provide any additional loss in either body weight or fat”[1].

This is great news for both your schedule and your levels of motivation. You’ll likely find it much easier to exercise for 30 minutes a day instead of an hour. In those 30 minutes, do your best to up the intensity to your appropriate edge to get the most out of the time.

3. Acknowledge Your Limits

Many people get frustrated when they plateau in their weight loss or muscle gaining goals as they’re learning how to get in shape. Everyone has an equilibrium and genetic set point where their body wants to remain. This doesn’t mean that you can’t achieve your fitness goals, but don’t be too hard on yourself if you are struggling to lose weight or put on muscle.

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Acknowledging a set point doesn’t mean giving up, but it does mean realizing the obstacles you face.

Expect to hit a plateau in your own fitness results[2]. When you expect a plateau, you can manage around it so you can continue your progress at a more realistic rate. When expectations meet reality, you can avoid dietary crashes.

4. Eat Healthy, Not Just Food That Looks Healthy

Know what you eat. Don’t fuss over minutia like whether you’re getting enough Omega 3’s or tryptophan, but be aware of the big things. Look at the foods you eat regularly and figure out whether they are healthy or not. Don’t get fooled by the deceptively healthy snacks just pretending to be good for you.

The basic nutritional advice includes:

  • Eat unprocessed foods
  • Eat more veggies
  • Use meat as a side dish, not a main course
  • Eat whole grains, not refined grains[3]

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Eat whole grains when you want to learn how to get in shape.

    5. Watch Out for Travel

    Don’t let a four-day holiday interfere with your attempts when you’re learning how to get in shape. I don’t mean that you need to follow your diet and exercise plan without any excursion, but when you are in the first few weeks, still forming habits, be careful that a week long break doesn’t terminate your progress.

    This is also true of schedule changes that leave you suddenly busy or make it difficult to exercise. Have a backup plan so you can be consistent, at least for the first month when you are forming habits.

    If travel is on your schedule and can’t be avoided, make an exercise plan before you go[4], and make sure to pack exercise clothes and an exercise mat as motivation to keep you on track.

    6. Start Slow

    Ever start an exercise plan by running ten miles and then puking your guts out? Maybe you aren’t that extreme, but burnout is common early on when learning how to get in shape. You have a lifetime to be healthy, so don’t try to go from couch potato to athletic superstar in a week.

    If you are starting a running regime, for example, run less than you can to start. Starting strength training? Work with less weight than you could theoretically lift. Increasing intensity and pushing yourself can come later when your body becomes comfortable with regular exercise.

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    7. Be Careful When Choosing a Workout Partner

    Should you have a workout partner? That depends. Workout partners can help you stay motivated and make exercising more fun. But they can also stop you from reaching your goals.

    My suggestion would be to have a workout partner, but when you start to plateau (either in physical ability, weight loss/gain, or overall health) and you haven’t reached your goals, consider mixing things up a bit.

    If you plateau, you may need to make changes to continue improving. In this case it’s important to talk to your workout partner about the changes you want to make, and if they don’t seem motivated to continue, offer a thirty day break where you both try different activities.

    I notice that guys working out together tend to match strength after a brief adjustment phase. Even if both are trying to improve, something seems to stall improvement once they reach a certain point. I found that I was able to lift as much as 30-50% more after taking a short break from my regular workout partner.

    Final Thoughts

    Learning how to get in shape in as little as two weeks sounds daunting, but if you’re motivated and have the time and energy to devote to it, it’s certainly possible.

    Find an exercise routine that works for you, eat healthy, drink lots of water, and watch as the transformation begins.

    More Tips on Getting in Shape

    Featured photo credit: Alexander Redl via unsplash.com

    Reference

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