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Scientists Say This Is Probably the Real Reason Why People Have Addiction

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Scientists Say This Is Probably the Real Reason Why People Have Addiction

$700 billion a year. Yes, that is the whopping bill the USA has to fork out because of addiction every year. This is the cost in terms of health care, lost working days to the nation for addiction to drugs, alcohol and smoking, just to name a few. What is the solution? The first step would be to understand what really causes addiction and what is the latest scientific explanation for this. Secondly, we could look at the role of decriminalization of drugs and how this may lead to a safer and healthier society.

Why do people get addicted?

The problem arises when the pleasurable activities such as sex, food, gambling or use of drugs and alcohol becomes compulsive and starts to interfere with work, health and relationships. It is interesting to note that in the early 1930s addiction to alcohol and other substances was seen as having a lack of willpower or character. But now scientists are investigating the real cause of addiction and their results are surprising, to say the least.

One view is that people become addicted to a substance or behavior because it gives them some comfort or relief from some sort of psychological stress. Alcohol can give a sense of euphoria in the short term especially when anxiety and depression are present. The long term effects are damaging to health. Even more troubling is that the addiction prevents the sufferer from looking for the cause and in seeking treatment.

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Researchers have homed in on the lateral habenula region of the brain which governs whether we see something as being rewarding or having too many negative consequences. Experiments with rats seem to indicate that is one of the areas of the brain affected by alcohol, but more studies need to be done.

More rat experiments in the 1980s got a lot of publicity from ads which were run by the Partnership for a Drug-Free America (PDFA). Here, one lone rat was put into a cage with two bottles, one containing water and the other a mix of water and cocaine. The rat became addicted to the drugged water, kept on coming back for more and then died. The advert then warns:

“Only one drug is so addictive, nine out of ten laboratory rats will use it. And use it. And use it. Until dead. It’s called cocaine. And it can do the same thing to you.”

The message was clear that there were strong chemical agents which were causing the craving and addiction. You can see some of the PDFA ads which were broadcast in 1987 here. Chemical agents could not explain an addiction to gambling, however.

The view from Rat Park

But Professor Bruce Alexander of Simon Fraser University and author of The Globalisation of Addiction: A study in poverty of the spirit, was not so sure. He started experiments with the famous Rat Park.

He put some rats in solitary confinement with a water bottle and another with a mix of drugs. Then for another group of rats, he created Rat Park. This was an ideal environment for them where they had exercise wheels, balls to play with and great food. The researchers noticed that the rats in solitary were addicted to the cocaine mix while the rats in Rat Park hardly touched the stuff and were extremely happy and contented. None of them died.

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Alexander’s crucial question was whether humans might be similar to the rats. Could one’s environment and psychological state really determine whether a person would become addicted or not? Unfortunately, the impact of the study on the theory of addiction was almost nil and Rat Park was closed.

The questions that need answers.

People on medication do not become addicted whereas the typical street addict is hooked for life, unless he or she seeks rehab. Could it really be just due to the fact humans need to bond and receive affection from a loving and caring environment? The figures from the return of the Vietnam War veterans would seem to support this theory.

It is a well known fact that about 20% of these soldiers were heroin or cocaine addicts. But after they returned home, a whopping 95% of these addicted soldiers simply gave up the habit. Only a tiny number actually needed rehab. Like the rats in the cage, they had no need of any drugs once they were back in a safer and more caring environment. We cannot imagine a more terrifying cage than war!

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Is decriminalization the answer?

Look at what Portugal did. In the year 2000, the government decided to decriminalize drug use. They wanted to treat drug addicts, rather than punish them. Now, more than 10 years later, the drug use ratio has fallen by 50%. Of course, more innovative treatment methods and reducing some of the risk factors played a part in this turnaround.

This may well be the way forward. The vast sums of money spent in chasing, arresting, trying and imprisoning drug users was used in helping drug users to reconnect with society again and to help give them a purpose in life. In other words, they have helped them get out of their solitary confinement cage.

More by this author

Robert Locke

Author of Ziger the Tiger Stories, a health enthusiast specializing in relationships, life improvement and mental health.

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Last Updated on January 13, 2022

10 Cheap And Amazing Honeymoon Ideas

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10 Cheap And Amazing Honeymoon Ideas

A honeymoon is important.  The wedding is over.  The months, or even years, of stress and planning are finally over.  It’s time for the two of you to relax, settle in, and start enjoying your time together as you embark on your first journey as a family.

To make the most of this time for the least amount of money, it’s important to focus on what you want out of a honeymoon.  This isn’t your typical list of touristy honeymoon locations everyone goes to.  Rather, it’s a list of cheap honeymoon experiences a couple can enjoy together, regardless of where it’s at.

1. Camping

A week long camping trip is a fantastic way to see how you mesh together as a couple.  You’re put in a low impact “survival” situation where it’s just the 2 of you and nature.  You have a chance to see how your new spouse handles themselves when left with the basics of life.  There are amazing national parks all over the United States where you can camp for a week for $20-30, disconnect from technology, and enjoy some of the natural wonders our nation has to offer.

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2. Staycation

You don’t have to go anywhere for a honeymoon.  In fact, the tradition of taking a honeymoon vacation is a relatively new one.  Prior to the 19th century, a honeymoon involved staying home together for a month to get to know each other physically.  Think of how blissful it could be to take a full month off work, disconnect from the outside world, and focus entirely on projects together.  You may not be wowing your friends and family with pictures of some exotic location, but they’ll be envious of your escape from the rat race nonetheless.

3. Island Getaway

People tend to overspend on their honeymoon vacations to Hawaii, Tahiti, etc.  Going to these places doesn’t have to be expensive.  You don’t need to stay in a 5 star resort when you’re on a Best Western budget.  You’re there to be in the atmosphere of the island, not a hotel room. Book a cheap flight and sleep in a hotel alternative, on the beach or in your car.  It’s the view in paradise that really matters.

4. Fancy Resort

Book an expensive resort, spa, or retreat in the city you live in.  While this may seem counterintuitive as a cheap destination, when you consider your savings on airfare and other travel costs, you can afford to be treated like royalty within your own city limits.  If you book a honeymoon package, you’ll end up with a lot of free amenities and extra attention.  There’s no need to fly halfway across the world to live the good life.

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5. Road Trip

The journey is often more fulfilling than the actual destination.  If you fly out to some exotic locale, you’ll be stuck on a plane for 8-30 hours.  Rent a luxury car, pick a handful of places you each have always wanted to visit, and go on an adventure.  You can keep food costs down by packing your own snacks, but it’s always a good idea to sample the local delicacies wherever you go, even if it’s only a few states over.

6. Charter a Boat

If the ocean is your thing, a week-long cruise can cost you $1500-$3000 per person, depending on the destination.  You also have to factor in travel costs to and from the cruise, alcohol, souvenirs, and on-shore excursions.  You’ll also be surrounded by people.  For the same price (and often much cheaper), you can charter your own boat and enjoy the experience in private.

7. Las Vegas/Atlantic City

If gambling is your thing, these are the places to do it.  Which one you choose depends on your preference, budget, and proximity.  The way to make this vacation cheaper is to gamble smart.  Stay away from low odd tables (i.e craps, roulette) and read up on the MIT blackjack strategies to beat the house.  If you do it right, you can win enough for a free trip (and gain a valuable team skill in the process).

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8. Themed Retreats

There are weeklong retreats all over the world where you can fully immerse yourselves as a couple into a hobby you’re both passionate about.  Go on a yoga/meditation retreat, a ranch, a vineyard/farm, a backpacking adventure, treasure hunt, or whatever you’re into.

9. Working Honeymoon

Your honeymoon doesn’t have to be a vacation.  For a truly memorable experience, dedicate a week to a charity or volunteer organization.  You can drive out to a campground to help restore it in the offseason.  Maybe you’ve always wanted to volunteer to help out your local animal shelter, plant trees, help the homeless, etc.  Use the time to do something together as a couple that will fulfill you spiritually while contributing to the community.  Just because you’re on a honeymoon doesn’t mean you can’t be productive.

10. Festivals, Fairs & Special Events

Every city, state, and country has festivals, fairs, and special events.  Find one you’re interested in.  If you time your wedding right, your honeymoon can be a trip to one of these festivals.  Burning Man, SXSW, Bonnaroo, the Renaissance Fair, regional harvest festivals, Mardi Gras, New Years Eve in Times Square, a movie premiere, or whatever you’re into.  If you plan your honeymoon at the right time in the right place, the possibilities are endless.

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Featured photo credit: Josue Michel via unsplash.com

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