Advertising
Advertising

Published on April 6, 2018

Why Strength Training for Runners Increases Performance (and Prevents Injury)

Why Strength Training for Runners Increases Performance (and Prevents Injury)

Most people turn to running when they are looking for an exercise that gets them outdoors, provides a mental escape, and packs a major load of health benefits to boot.

Because running is already a full-body exercise with a heavy cardiovascular component, many athletes fail to look outside of it for additional training that compliments their efforts.

Strength training for runners is also vitally important for performance and injury prevention.

This guide will provide you with a solid reasons as to why you should be incorporating strength training moves into your program.

Read on to discover the many benefits of strength training for runners.

Getting Started with Strength Training

Athletes that are dedicated to the running–whether first staring out, or as an experienced, competitive runner–will often feel that they do not have the time to incorporate strength training into their planned sessions.

Find Time to Gain Strength

Training for endurance events can be scheduled as often as four or five times a week.

With that dedication of time, it can be easy to feel overwhelmed at the idea of adding strength training to the mix.

You can slip in a few bodyweight moves at the end of a short run, or include resistance training as part of an active recovery day.

Either way, it is imperative that you make time to focus on performance-enhancing strength training moves to build muscle endurance and prevent injury.

Strength Training: Not Just for Bodybuilders

It is a common misconception that you can either be a strength athlete or an endurance athlete, but not both.

It may be true that at the elite, competitive level it is very difficult to excel in both endurance and strength events; however, each form of training has its place in the other’s program.

Professional sports players, for example, spend a comparable amount of time in the gym strength training as they do on the field performing drills.

Strength training, also referred to as “resistance training,” is the process of improving the efficiency of these systems working together to increase the power and speed at which your body preforms the tasks you ask of it.

At the same time, strength training reduces the strain and pressure your body is under during the same movements.

Advertising

The Mighty Muscular System

The muscular system is one of the seven major systems of the human body; every movement your body makes is a result of the muscular system placing pressure on the skeletal system. [1]

Muscles are connected to bones using connective tissues such as tendons and ligaments. As the muscles contract and relax, the bones are moved, pivoted, and rotated to perform the desired movements.

Your muscular system is able to perform work in three different ways:

  1. Muscles can perform eccentric movements when they lengthen, or push forces away.
  2. Muscles can perform concentric movements when they shorten, or pull forces towards the body.
  3. Muscles can perform isometric work: they can hold weight as it is without any change to their length.

An example of this might be a person who performs manual labor as part of his or her daily professional work.

They lift, move, and hold heavy weights each day to perform their professional, everyday tasks.

Strength training for this worker would not only make these tasks feel easier to the worker, but they would also strengthen the body’s muscular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems to a point where these tasks actually become safer as well.

As a result, this person is less susceptible to injury and their job performance can be greatly improved.

Additionally, they are able to move more quickly, carry heavier loads, and will become less fatigued throughout the work day.

How do you know what exercises are best for you and your running goals?

The many characteristics of the muscular system can be overwhelming.

There are specific exercises that will train your body to perform the three types of muscle movements; so, how do you know what you should be doing?

The truth is there are many exercises that you can do to help you strengthen your body. There are so many, in fact, that it is hard to know where to begin.

The goal is simply to make your body stronger so that it can perform to tasks you give it with more efficiency.

In short, placing any additional load on your body will help achieve that goal. Following a specific program, however, is like having a roadmap for the quickest and most efficient way to get there.

On an anatomical level, strength training carries multisystem benefits. Your muscles will increase strength with which to move additional loads.

The bones of your skeletal system will become stronger and less brittle, a common problem in older women. You cardiovascular system will improve as your heart adapts to the increase in blood volume and heart rate.

Advertising

All in all, strength training carries as many total-body benefits as running itself.

How Does This Apply to Runners?

Running places a huge demand on your body.

Your heart rate increases, the blood flow rate through your system increases, and your muscles and joints absorb the shock of each and every stride.

The same way resistance training for the manual laborer mentioned above will help increase his work performance, strength training for runners will do the same on short daily runs, as well as on long hauls and race days.

Running, in terms of the pressure and demands it places on the body can be repetitive.

The force of your body coming down on your knees, the tightening of your core to keep your balance, all of it is a constant demand on the body that requires each system within to work together in perfect harmony.

Injuries happen when there are imbalances within the system and one part of the machine is forced to compensate step after step after step.

Strengths training keeps your body’s systems in balance.

It keeps your muscles strong and your tendons and ligaments agile to accept the forces placed upon them; and, when done correctly, it can identify weaknesses before an injury has the chance to occur.

The Benefits of Strength Training for Runners

A body placed under any repetitive force will adapt. It is that simple, unfortunately.

As you perform the same movement over and over again, your body will begin to become more efficient at repeating that movement.

As a result, your body’s muscles grow less, strengthen less, and the benefits of the motion are reduced over time.

On the bright side, this adaptation is the reason why as you continue running, you can begin to run further and further each week.

A strength training program that works in sync with your running schedule can keep the progressive overload necessary to maintain the positive changes you saw at the beginning of your program.

Increase Your Performance

Balance, strength, and speed are three of the main components of running.

Advertising

Any exercises that focus on one of these three areas would be beneficial to runners.

Core Exercises

Core exercises such as planks, leg lifts, and many yoga poses will strengthen the body’s stabilizing muscles.

As you run, this can reduce sway from side to side, minimize back pain, and increase running efficiency.

The lower abs are used in running to pull the leg forward and up at the beginning of each stride. Leg lifts especially can help strengthen these muscles and reduce fatigue during this particular action.

Leg Exercises

An increase in leg strength will undoubtedly lead to faster run times.

Long distance endurance racers may not see their speed as strength, but strength and power training can greatly improve running performance by increasing muscle endurance for long runs.

Squats, leg curls, box jumps, calf raises, and lunges are all good options for increasing the muscle strength and explosive power of the quadriceps, hamstrings, and calves.

Strength Training on Cardio Machines

As mentioned earlier, running can sometimes place grueling, repetitive stresses on your joints, especially when you are dedicated to running four or more times each week.

As an alternative, you can easily get a significant strength workout on an elliptical or stationary bike by using the high resistance and incline settings on the machine.

By swapping one short run each week to a workout of equal exertion level of a different format, you will create muscle confusion in your body and counteract the running adaptations in your body.

The high resistance and steep incline (if available) are a great strength training workout for your legs and arms. Furthermore, short periods of increased speed and intensity, also known as interval training, can aid in your cardiovascular training as well.

Strength Training in Runners Reduces Off-Time Due to Injury

The most common reason runners give for foregoing strength training is a lack of time; they often feel their training time is better spent logging miles on the roads or trails than in the gym.

The truth is, preventable injuries due to overuse, under-recovery, and muscular imbalances will take you out of the sport for far more time than alternative training ever will.

It is worth the time spent now on maintaining a healthy internal balance to save the time you may spend recovering from an injury down the line.

Full Body Workouts for Fast Results

For athletes who want to most bang for their buck in terms of injury prevention without taking too much time away from their running, full-body workouts are the way to go.

Advertising

Bodyweight exercises such as push-ups, burpees, squats, walking lunges, mountain climbers, and plyometric moves can burn calories, increase cardiovascular performance, and increase strength while exercising stabilizing mechanics and maintaining the injury-preventing benefits of cross-training.

Strength Training Doesn’t Equal Bulk

It would be imprudent to ignore that some people run because they want to maintain their weight and achieve a certain appearance; not every runner is ramping up for competition.

Elite endurance athletes are often known for having long, thin, sleek bodies that seem to move with weightlessness.

For runners who got into the sport for body aesthetics, strength training is a turn off because of the popular belief that with muscular strength comes a larger, “unfeminine” body frame; this is blatantly untrue.

The Difference Between Strength and Hypertrophy Training

Hypertrophy, or the literal growth of muscle in size, and strength are NOT the same thing.

Strength and hypertrophy are actually two different goals that are achieved with two different methods of training.

Strength training, when done properly, results in what most people refer to as the “toned” look.

Usually, the definition you see in muscles is actually a result of body composition and body fat percentage and not strictly due to increase muscle mass or strength.

Make Strength Training a Priority

It is understandably hard to find time to fit in even 30 minutes of strength training each week in addition to the tens of miles you may already be running.

However, dedication to these strength training sessions three to four times each week can increase your running performance exponentially.

As your muscles grow stronger you will find yourself less winded coming over hills that used to slow you down.

You will be able to run further with less fatigue because of the improvement in muscle endurance, and you will beyond a doubt be less susceptible to injuries that common among endurance athletes.

The balance and stabilization benefits you will get from core exercises will help your body move more fluidly, reduce back pain, and increase recovery time between runs.

Finally, just as you would never skip a proper warm up or cooling stretch before and after a long run, you should not ignore the injury-preventing benefits of strong, balanced muscles. They are built to carry the load of your body over all the miles you run.

For more tips and tricks on how to stay healthy, follow us on Twitter! Also, check out Dr. Jamie Schwandt’s article on an amazing strength-training move, the Power Pushup .

Reference

More by this author

Lisa Patten

ACE Certified Personal Trainer and Professional Fitness Writer

9 Ways a Clean Eating Diet Can Help You Feel Better Why Strength Training for Runners Increases Performance (and Prevents Injury)

Trending in Fitness

113 Pregnancy Yoga Exercises for The Last Trimester 2Yoga Benefits for Men and Women Over 40 (And How to Get Started Now) 3Science Says Screaming Is Good For You 4The Best 10 Types of Exercise for Kids Who Get Too Much Screentime 519 Fun Activities for Seniors to Stay Active Physically and Mentally

Read Next

Advertising
Advertising

12 Best Brain Foods that Improve Memory

12 Best Brain Foods that Improve Memory

Nutrition plays a vital role in brain function and staying sharp into the golden years. Personally, my husband is going through medical school, which is like a daily mental marathon. Like any good wife, I am always looking for things that will boost his memory fortitude so he does his best in school.

But you don’t have to be a med student to appreciate better brainiac brilliance. If you combine certain foods with good hydration, proper sleep and exercise, you may just rival Einstein and have a great memory in no time.

I’m going to reveal the list of foods coming out of the kitchen that can improve your memory and make you smarter.

Here are 12 best brain foods that improve memory:

1. Nuts

The American Journal of Epidemiology published a study linking higher intakes of vitamin E with the prevention on cognitive decline.[1]

Nuts like walnuts and almonds (along with other great foods like avocados) are a great source of vitamin E.

Cashews and sunflower seeds also contain an amino acid that reduces stress by boosting serotonin levels.

Walnuts even resemble the brain, just in case you forget the correlation, and are a great source of omega 3 fatty acids, which also improve your mental magnitude.

Advertising

2. Blueberries

Shown in studies at Tuffs University to benefit both short-term memory and coordination, blueberries pack quite a punch in a tiny blue package.[2]

When compared to other fruits and veggies, blueberries were found to have the highest amount of antioxidants (especially flavonoids), but strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries are also full of brain benefits.

3. Tomatoes

Tomatoes are packed full of the antioxidant lycopene, which has shown to help protect against free-radical damage most notably seen in dementia patients.

4. Broccoli

While all green veggies are important and rich in antioxidants and vitamin C, broccoli is a superfood even among these healthy choices.

Since your brain uses so much fuel (it’s only 3% of your body weight but uses up to 17% of your energy), it is more vulnerable to free-radical damage and antioxidants help eliminate this threat.

Broccoli is packed full of antioxidants, is well-known as a powerful cancer fighter and is also full of vitamin K, which is known to enhance cognitive function.

5. Foods Rich in Essential Fatty Acids

Your brain is the fattest organ (not counting the skin) in the human body, and is composed of 60% fat. That means that your brain needs essential fatty acids like DHA and EPA to repair and build up synapses associated with memory.

The body does not naturally produce essential fatty acids so we must get them in our diet.

Advertising

Eggs, flax, and oily fish like salmon, sardines, mackerel and herring are great natural sources of these powerful fatty acids. Eggs also contain choline, which is a necessary building block for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, to help you recall information and concentrate.

6. Soy

Soy, along with many other whole foods mentioned here, are full of proteins that trigger neurotransmitters associated with memory.

Soy protein isolate is a concentrated form of the protein that can be found in powder, liquid, or supplement form.

Soy is valuable for improving memory and mental flexibility, so pour soy milk over your cereal and enjoy the benefits.

7. Dark chocolate

When it comes to chocolate, the darker the better. Try to aim for at least 70% cocoa. This yummy desert is rich in flavanol antioxidants which increase blood flow to the brain and shield brain cells from aging.

Take a look at this article if you want to know more benefits of dark chocolate:

15 Surprising and Science-Backed Health Effects of Dark Chocolate

8. Foods Rich in Vitamins: B vitamins, Folic Acid, Iron

Some great foods to obtain brain-boosting B vitamins, folic acid and iron are kale, chard, spinach and other dark leafy greens.

Advertising

B6, B12 and folic acid can reduce levels of homocysteine in the blood. Homocysteine increases are found in patients with cognitive impairment like Alzheimer’s, and high risk of stroke.

Studies showed when a group of elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment were given high doses of B6, B12, and folic acid, there was significant reduction in brain shrinkage compared to a similar placebo group.[3]

Other sources of B vitamins are liver, eggs, soybeans, lentils and green beans. Iron also helps accelerate brain function by carrying oxygen. If your brain doesn’t get enough oxygen, it can slow down and people can experience difficulty concentrating, diminished intellect, and a shorter attention span.

To get more iron in your diet, eat lean meats, beans, and iron-fortified cereals. Vitamin C helps in iron absorption, so don’t forget the fruits!

9. Foods Rich in Zinc

Zinc has constantly demonstrated its importance as a powerful nutrient in memory building and thinking. This mineral regulates communications between neurons and the hippocampus.

Zinc is deposited within nerve cells, with the highest concentrations found in the hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for higher learning function and memory.

Some great sources of zinc are pumpkin seeds, liver, nuts, and peas.

10. Gingko biloba

This herb has been utilized for centuries in eastern culture and is best known for its memory boosting brawn.

Advertising

It can increase blood flow in the brain by dilating vessels, increasing oxygen supply and removing free radicals.

However, don’t expect results overnight: this may take a few weeks to build up in your system before you see improvements.

11. Green and black tea

Studies have shown that both green and black tea prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine—a key chemical involved in memory and lacking in Alzheimer’s patients.

Both teas appear to have the same affect on Alzheimer’s disease as many drugs utilized to combat the illness, but green tea wins out as its affects last a full week versus black tea which only lasts the day.

Find out more about green tea here:

11 Health Benefits of Green Tea (+ How to Drink It for Maximum Benefits)

12. Sage and Rosemary

Both of these powerful herbs have been shown to increase memory and mental clarity, and alleviate mental fatigue in studies.

Try to enjoy these savory herbs in your favorite dishes.

When it comes to mental magnitude, eating smart can really make you smarter. Try to implement more of these readily available nutrients and see just how brainy you can be!

Featured photo credit: Pexels via pexels.com

Reference

Read Next