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Are There Shortcuts To Becoming An Expert?

Are There Shortcuts To Becoming An Expert?
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It seems like everyone these days wants to become an expert in their field, and we’d all like to get there faster than the next person. But at the same time, there’s a school of thought that says it takes 10,000 hours to truly become an expert at something, and it can be really difficult to find shortcuts to becoming an expert.

That 10,000 hour rule may not be strictly true–it’s not as if a switch flips at 10,000 and you suddenly know more than you did at 9,999–but the truth is that becoming an expert in any endeavor takes a lot of hard work, and there aren’t really any shortcuts to an expert status. You don’t have to take my word for it; plenty of knowledgeable people have said the same thing.

Regardless of natural talent, becoming a true expert takes time.

“Achievement is talent plus preparation,” said Malcolm Gladwell, the economist who made the 10,000 hour rule a popular notion. “The closer psychologists look at the careers of the gifted, the smaller the role innate talent seems to play and the bigger the role preparation seems to play.”

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The idea that expertise takes a long time to cultivate came from the work of K. Anders Ericsson, who wrote, “even for the most talented individuals, ten years of experience in a domain is necessary to become an expert,” though he also noted that 10 years isn’t a magic number, but a long time must be devoted to study and practice to get really good at something.

Psychologist Earl Hunt agrees. “Becoming an expert in almost anything requires literally years of work. People will do this only if they have some initial success, enjoy the work, and are supported by the social climate. Expertise is not solely a cognitive affair.”

Poet Maya Angelou has said, “all great achievements require time,” and becoming an expert surely would qualify.

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Keep trying, even if you fail.

Whether or not you believe expertise requires a lot of time, it certainly requires a lot of effort, as the businessman W. Clement Stone noted.

Try, try, try, and keep on trying is the rule that must be followed to become an expert in anything,” he said.

The Danish physicist Niels Bohr would add that all that trying is important because it allows you to make mistakes: “An expert is a man who has made all the mistakes which can be made, in a narrow field.”

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Edward de Bono, known as an expert on creative thinking, put it another way, noting that experts know what not to focus on when making choices. “An expert is someone who has succeeded in making decisions and judgments simpler through knowing what to pay attention to and what to ignore,” he said.

Focus on something specific.

It’s a popular notion among experts on expertise that it’s likely that people will become true experts in only one field.

Ericcson noted this in research he did with Paul Fletovich and Michael Prietula, which said, “people hardly ever reach an elite level in more than a single domain of activity. There is little transfer from high-level proficiency in one domain to proficiency in other domains–even when the domains seem, intuitively, very similar.” So a person may become expert at one style of writing or playing one musical instrument or performing one sort of sport, but not have the same abilities in a related field.

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Or, as Alex Trebek put it, “we are all experts in our own little niches.” Or Nicholas M. Butler, a philosopher and Nobel Prize winner, noted, “An expert is one who knows more and more about less and less.”

Because, of course, even experts have to keep learning. The motivational speaker Denis Waitley put it this way: “Never become so much of an expert that you stop gaining expertise. View life as a continuous learning experience.”

As indeed it should be. Perhaps we should spend a little less time worrying about how long it takes and whether there are shortcuts to becoming an expert and instead consider our life’s work to be becoming an expert at living our lives, in whatever particular niche we choose.

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Skeptical about the 10,000 hour rule? Read about a refutation of the theory from the world of sports.

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Sarah White

Freelance Writer, Editor, Professional Crafter

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Last Updated on July 21, 2021

The Importance of Reminders (And How to Make a Reminder Work)

The Importance of Reminders (And How to Make a Reminder Work)
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No matter how well you set up your todo list and calendar, you aren’t going to get things done unless you have a reliable way of reminding yourself to actually do them.

Anyone who’s spent an hour writing up the perfect grocery list only to realize at the store that they forgot to bring the list understands the importance of reminders.

Reminders of some sort or another are what turn a collection of paper goods or web services into what David Allen calls a “trusted system.”[1]

A lot of people resist getting better organized. No matter what kind of chaotic mess, their lives are on a day-to-day basis because they know themselves well enough to know that there’s after all that work they’ll probably forget to take their lists with them when it matters most.

Fortunately, there are ways to make sure we remember to check our lists — and to remember to do the things we need to do, whether they’re on a list or not.

In most cases, we need a lot of pushing at first, for example by making a reminder, but eventually we build up enough momentum that doing what needs doing becomes a habit — not an exception.

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From Creating Reminders to Building Habits

A habit is any act we engage in automatically without thinking about it.

For example, when you brush your teeth, you don’t have to think about every single step from start to finish; once you stagger up to the sink, habit takes over (and, really, habit got you to the sink in the first place) and you find yourself putting toothpaste on your toothbrush, putting the toothbrush in your mouth (and never your ear!), spitting, rinsing, and so on without any conscious effort at all.

This is a good thing because if you’re anything like me, you’re not even capable of conscious thought when you’re brushing your teeth.

The good news is you already have a whole set of productivity habits you’ve built up over the course of your life. The bad news is, a lot of them aren’t very good habits.

That quick game Frogger to “loosen you up” before you get working, that always ends up being 6 hours of Frogger –– that’s a habit. And as you know, habits like that can be hard to break — which is one of the reasons why habits are so important in the first place.

Once you’ve replaced an unproductive habit with a more productive one, the new habit will be just as hard to break as the old one was. Getting there, though, can be a chore!

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The old saw about anything you do for 21 days becoming a habit has been pretty much discredited, but there is a kernel of truth there — anything you do long enough becomes an ingrained behavior, a habit. Some people pick up habits quickly, others over a longer time span, but eventually, the behaviors become automatic.

Building productive habits, then, is a matter of repeating a desired behavior over a long enough period of time that you start doing it without thinking.

But how do you remember to do that? And what about the things that don’t need to be habits — the one-off events, like taking your paycheck stubs to your mortgage banker or making a particular phone call?

The trick to reminding yourself often enough for something to become a habit, or just that one time that you need to do something, is to interrupt yourself in some way in a way that triggers the desired behavior.

The Wonderful Thing About Triggers — Reminders

A trigger is anything that you put “in your way” to remind you to do something. The best triggers are related in some way to the behavior you want to produce.

For instance, if you want to remember to take something to work that you wouldn’t normally take, you might place it in front of the door so you have to pick it up to get out of your house.

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But anything that catches your attention and reminds you to do something can be a trigger. An alarm clock or kitchen timer is a perfect example — when the bell rings, you know to wake up or take the quiche out of the oven. (Hopefully you remember which trigger goes with which behavior!)

If you want to instill a habit, the thing to do is to place a trigger in your path to remind you to do whatever it is you’re trying to make into a habit — and keep it there until you realize that you’ve already done the thing it’s supposed to remind you of.

For instance, a post-it saying “count your calories” placed on the refrigerator door (or maybe on your favorite sugary snack itself)  can help you remember that you’re supposed to be cutting back — until one day you realize that you don’t need to be reminded anymore.

These triggers all require a lot of forethought, though — you have to remember that you need to remember something in the first place.

For a lot of tasks, the best reminder is one that’s completely automated — you set it up and then forget about it, trusting the trigger to pop up when you need it.

How to Make a Reminder Works for You

Computers and ubiquity of mobile Internet-connected devices make it possible to set up automatic triggers for just about anything.

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Desktop software like Outlook will pop up reminders on your desktop screen, and most online services go an extra step and send reminders via email or SMS text message — just the thing to keep you on track. Sandy, for example, just does automatic reminders.

Automated reminders can help you build habits — but it can also help you remember things that are too important to be trusted even to habit. Diabetics who need to take their insulin, HIV patients whose medication must be taken at an exact time in a precise order, phone calls that have to be made exactly on time, and other crucial events require triggers even when the habit is already in place.

My advice is to set reminders for just about everything — have them sent to your mobile phone in some way (either through a built-in calendar or an online service that sends updates) so you never have to think about it — and never have to worry about forgetting.

Your weekly review is a good time to enter new reminders for the coming weeks or months. I simply don’t want to think about what I’m supposed to be doing; I want to be reminded so I can think just about actually doing it.

I tend to use my calendar for reminders, mostly, though I do like Sandy quite a bit.

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Featured photo credit: Unsplash via unsplash.com

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Reference

[1] Getting Things Done: Trusted System

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