Advertising
Advertising

How Healthy is Our Drinking Water? Pros & Cons of What We Drink

How Healthy is Our Drinking Water? Pros & Cons of What We Drink

Water is the key to life, sustaining every cell, organ and metabolic function within in the body. While the benefits of drinking water are commonly understood, less well known are the pros and cons of different types of drinking water and their varying effects on our overall health.

While the ideal water is a subject of debate and controversy, this article simply aims to review some of the health effect of the wide range of water products currently available to us.

On Tap

For the majority of the world’s population, tap water comes from sources on the Earth’s surface such as dams, reservoirs, lakes, rivers, catchments and even the ocean (post-desalination).

However up to10 million cubic kilometers of water, including more than 90% of the world’s freshwater,lays underground in subterranean aquifers (layers of porous and permeable rock such as limestone and sandstone, accessed via wells and boreholes), providing up to 40% of the world’s drinking water.

Groundwater may be ‘harder’ than surface water, meaning it contains higher levels of dissolved mineral ions, absorbed from rocks and soil. Hard wateris not known to have adverse health effectsand mayhelp consumersachieve recommended daily intake of nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, which are essential for good health.

Depending on geographic location, groundwater can also be muchhigher in natural fluoridethan surface water.

While 5.7% of the world’s population drink deliberately fluoridated water to tackle tooth decay, ingesting high concentrations can result in dental and skeletal fluorosis among other potential health problems.

The greatest health concern from drinking surface water is its high susceptibility to contamination from bacteria, parasites, viruses, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and stormwater runoff containing sediments and pollutants.

Therefore, before it’s piped to households, surface water is treated, filtered and disinfected with chlorine, chloramine or ozone to eliminate or reduce these substances to acceptable levels.

Groundwater is often cleaner than surface water and potentially safer to drink with little-to-no chemical treatment, due to aquifers acting as natural purifiers, trapping sediment and pathogenic bacteria.

Groundwater may still receive treatment due to contamination from leaking sewage pipes, septic and storage tanks; pesticides; chemical fertilizers; hazardous natural substances, such as arsenic; and landfill seepage.

Advertising

Despite measures to ensure the best quality drinking water, low levels of contaminants and pathogens may remain and on occasion there have been seriousoutbreaks of waterborne illness. Though chlorinating water is typically effective in destroying pathogens, it’s ineffective against Cryptosporidiosis and Giardia Lamblia parasites, which can cause gastroenteritis and pose serious risks to people with weakened immune systems.

Tap water can also contain low levels of potentially carcinogenic byproducts, includingtrihalomethanes, created by disinfecting municipal water supplies, as well as chemicals leached from corroded plumbing, such as lead, cadmium and copper, which in high quantities can interfere with children’s physical and mental development and cause increased blood pressure and kidney and liver problems in adults.

Unless an alert or ‘boil water advisory’ has been issued, tap water is usually safe to drink, with no imminent risk of adverse health impacts. Still, millions of households worldwide attempt to remove these remaining contaminants with the use of water filter water, which can cost $20 to several hundred dollars.

Image: Idea Go / freedigitalphotos.net

Bottled Water

Bottled water is a major industry, costing more than 100 billion dollars globally, with popularity growing even in countries with some of the cleanest tap water.

Bottled water is favoredfor its improved taste and purported health benefits over tap water, even though manyare unsureas to why it’s meant to be healthier. While it can help people stay hydrated while they’re on the move, bottled water is generally no healthier than tap water nor is it always free fromchemical contamination,waterborne disease, orfluoridationand can even potentiallyleach unwanted chemicals, such as antimony and bisphenol-Afrom the bottle.

Some bottled water has been found to be just tap water filtered to remove impurities, but can cost several dollars compared to tap water, which generally costs a fraction of a cent per liter. Other than price, a major advantage of tap water is that it’s rigorously checked for contamination and potential health hazards on a daily basis to ensure quality, while bottled water is generally tested less regularly and stringently.

ID-100148047
    Image: Toa55 / freedigitalphotos.net

    Well Water

    Tens of millions of people worldwide access their own private source of groundwater by tapping underground aquifers via wells (e.g. over 15 million householdsdo so in the USA alone). Private wells are not regulated or checked by governments and therefore provide users with potentially all the water they need while entirely offsetting water bills.

    Well owners can also avoid chemical disinfectants used in public water supplies, which some sayimproveswell water’s taste.

    Unless wells are constantly maintained and regularly checked for contaminants by owners, drinkers may be at risk of Hepatitis A, giardia, campylobacter, e. coli, shigella, cryptosporidium and salmonella as well as toxins and pollutants such as arsenic, gasoline, nitrate, phenol and selenium.

    Wells are a considerable investment, costing thousands of dollars to install plus additional expense for electricity to power the extraction pump and possible water treatment.

    Advertising

    waterislife (1)

      Rainwater

      Though we already rely on rainfall to recharge dams, reservoirs and aquifers from which we source drinking water, millions of people in dozens of countries collect rainwater for drinking (e.g. more than two million people in Australia use rainwater as a major source of drinking water).

      Well designed harvesting systems with clean catchments and storage tanks can provide a free, renewable source of water, clear of impurities and devoid of controversial additives in tap water, such as fluoride and chlorine.

      Rainwater is considered ‘soft’, so it lacks many of the beneficial nutrients found in tap water, such as magnesium, calcium and iron. Rainwater can become easily contaminated due to improperly constructed and managed harvesting systems or through atmospheric and land pollution dirt, animal feces as well as dissolved metals (e.g. lead and zinc) leached from materials in the water catchment system and storage tanks.

      Though pathogen levels in rainwater are generally lower than surface water, there have been reported outbreaks of Legionnaire’s Disease, campylobacter and botulism as a result of drinking rain water.

      Rainwater tanks can be a fairly expensive option to obtain water, costing hundreds or several thousand dollars.

      Hot & Cold Water

      A common rumor suggests that drinking cold water, especially after a meal, can cause cancer or heart problems, though this is largely false. For many people, cold water is more refreshing, hydrating, soothing and better tasting than warm or room-temperature water.

      On the downside, cold water can increase migraines, blood pressure, chest pain and difficulty swallowing for people with esophageal motility disorders and, if icy, damage tooth enamel.

      Hot water, especially with a squirt of lemon juice, is a popular remedy to aid digestion, settle an upset stomach, alleviate constipation, treat a cold, create clear skin among many other benefits.

      As well as eliminating parasites and bacteria in our tap water, boiling water can remove small concentrations of residual chlorine from drinking water (which despite being considered safe by most health organisations, many people fear can increase risk of serious ailments), as well as reduce concentrations of detrimental disinfectant byproducts.

      800px-Hot_Cold_mug
        Image: Damianosullivan

        Sparkling / Carbonated Water

        Due to water’s often bland flavor, many people turn to a fizzier alternative to increase the enjoyment of drinking a long, cool, glass of H2O.

        Advertising

        A common rumor is that sparkling water can leach calcium from the bones and increase calcium excretion through urination. Though a connection has beenfound to exist between calcium loss and caffeinated carbonated drinks, sparkling water doesn’t seem to have the same detrimental effect on bones.

        Opinion is a little divided on whether sparkling water can exacerbate tooth decay.One study found that it had a negligible effect on dental erosion, especially compared to juices and cola which are 100 times more damaging.

        Carbonated water may create discomfort for those with irritable bowel syndrome, by increasing bloating and gas. Some bubbly drinks also have a high sodium content, making it a potential risk for those who have to monitor their salt intake due to various conditions such as high blood pressure, fluid retention and poor bone health.

        One study found that sodium-rich carbonated mineral water may actually help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Further research has shown that sparkling water may improve indigestion, constipation and gallbladder emptying.

        Sparkling Water
          Image: Tina Phillips

          Spring & Mineral Water

          Springs are formed when groundwater emerges naturally from an aquifer to the earth’s surface. Some spring water is said to originate from an ‘Artesian Well’ which is an aquifer confined between slabs of impermeable rock in which natural pressure allows water to rise above the aquifer or all the way to the surface without the use of a pump.

          Mineral water is also naturally produced at springs and contains at least 250 parts per million total dissolved solids, including minerals and electrolytes such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, silicon, sodium, bicarbonate and iron.

          The health benefits of spring and mineral water depends on the quality of the aquifer and how protected the spring is. Minerals from a well managed spring can benefit bone structure, energy production, nervous system function, blood clotting, muscle activity,kidney stones,teeth, skin and hair, liver purification, digestion,blood pressureas well as many other functions.

          Drinking directly from a poorly managed spring may be hazardous to health, as it can easily become contaminated from various pollutants and bacteria.

          Depending on geographic location, natural mineral water can have high concentrations of lithium. This trace mineral is commonly used to treat bipolar disorder and depression, though some studies have found a correlation between its presence in drinking water and decreased rates of suicide and criminal behavior. In some places this mineral water is sold as ‘Lithia Water’.

          file000289226047

            Purified Waters (De-Ionized and Distilled)

            Several methods exist to purify drinking water of remaining contaminants, though this article describes just two: Distilled and Deionized.

            Advertising

            Distilled water involves evaporating the liquid with heat to separate it from contaminants and then condensing the steam back into water within a separate container, usually leaving behind more than 99.9% of all minerals.

            Deionized (or demineralized) water instead uses a process of ion exchange, in which electrically charged resinsreplace calcium, magnesium, sodium, copper, iron and manganese with hydrogen and hydroxyl to create pure water, free of minerals, though it may still contain bacteria and viruses.

            The major case for drinking purified water is that it lacks most of the chemical contaminants and undesirable minerals that exist in tap water.

            However, also absent are most, if not all, of the beneficial minerals from drinking water that supplement our diets. Due to their low mineral content, many have found purified waters to have a flat taste compared to tap or bottled water.

            Drinking only purified water can also increase diuresis, dilution of electrolytes, increased elimination of minerals from the body, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, hypothyroidism, hypertension among many other things, though with a healthy diet it’s still possible to receive beneficial minerals and nutrients that are absent in purified water.

            Aqua-distillata
              Image: DP-1

              Alkaline / Ionized Water

              Alkaline water is generally created with water and an ionizer, which uses an electrical current to separate H2O particles into hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, raising the pH level to around 8 or 9.

              Proponents claim that alkaline water is capable of increasing vitality, slowing the ageing processes, preventing cancer and diabetes as well as neutralizing acid in the bloodstream, boosting metabolism, restoring the body’s pH balance, helping the body absorb nutrients more effectively and even offering protection against radiation.

              Unfortunatelythese claims are not yet backed by medical research. Some studies have found its potential for treating acid reflux, decreasing cholesterol and helping slow bone loss, though further research is required. Another study claimed that alkaline water was effective in managing metabolic acidosis, though this was only in certain animals.

              Critics argue that alkaline water may be detrimental to digestion and that it’s no healthier than regular tap water.Ionizers generally don’t filter out contaminants and mayincrease the concentration of dissolved metals to dangerous levels or even transform certain contaminants into unknown compounds.

              Water ionizers can cost several hundred or even over a thousand dollars.

              Alkaline_water_ionizer
                A water ionizer unit, capable or making water more acidic or alkaline.

                Enhanced Water

                With a range of colors and flavors distinguishing them from other bottled water products, enhanced water is marketed as having an improved taste and being fortified with beneficial vitamins, minerals, electrolytes and herbs so as to achieve various effects including boosting energy, increasing calmness, increasing antioxidants, improving hydration as well as many other effects.

                While all these things sound great, their actual health benefits have been called into question by consumer watchdogs due to enhanced waters containing high levels of sugar, comparable to carbonated soft drinks, effectively negating any potential benefits.

                Featured photo credit: Bart / Flickr via flickr.com

                More by this author

                How Healthy is Our Drinking Water? Pros & Cons of What We Drink

                Trending in Health

                1 10 Benefits of Sleeping Naked You Probably Didn’t Know 2 The Ultimate Guide to Help You Sleep Through the Night Tonight 3 Why Am I so Depressed Lately? 4 Things That Are Secretly Baffling You 4 Why Am I Exhausted? The Real Causes and How to Fix It Forever 5 How to Manage Stress (A Step-by-Step Guide to Turn Stress Into Success)

                Read Next

                Advertising
                Advertising

                Last Updated on October 18, 2018

                10 Benefits of Sleeping Naked You Probably Didn’t Know

                10 Benefits of Sleeping Naked You Probably Didn’t Know

                Sleeping is one of the most important things we do every night.

                Getting the right amount of sleep has an untold number of health benefits and not getting enough sleep is a serious problem in many countries around the world.

                So you should have heard of the many benefits of getting adequate sleep, but did you know that you can get additional benefits by sleeping naked?

                Here are some benefits of sleeping in the nude:

                Advertising

                Video Summary

                1. It is easier.

                When you don’t have to worry about sleeping in clothes, things start to get easier. You don’t have to buy pajamas, which can save you money. You have less clothes to wash and less clothes to put away. You may have to clean your bed sheets more often, but not nearly as often as you’d have to wash your pajamas when you run out.

                2. It forces you to be ready to go more often.

                Some people get off of work, change into their pajamas, and use this as an excuse to stay home the rest of the evening. This can lead to a more sedentary lifestyle, which has been attributed to things like weight gain.[1] When you keep your regular clothes on, you tend to go out more often and that’s a good thing.

                3. It can make you feel happier and more free.

                Just imagine the feeling of laying in bed naked. You’re free of your pants and underwear. Women, you’re not wearing a constrictive bra. It’s just you sandwiched between two cool sheets. The feeling just makes you want to smile and it makes you feel more free. Everyone can use that kind of good feeling every now and then, and it may even help you be happier as a person.

                4. Skin-on-skin contact is the best.

                Advertising

                  If you’re married, or living with your significant other, sleeping naked gives a greater chance of skin-on-skin contact, especially when it comes to cuddling. This kind of contact can also lead to a more active sex life. All of this releases copious amounts of oxytocin, which is the neurotransmitter that helps you feel those good feelings about your significant other.[2]

                  5. It could lead to better sleep.

                  Let’s revisit the scenario I described above. There are no drawstrings or clothes getting tangled in sheets. You don’t have to worry about shirts getting twisted. All of these distractions go away when you sleep naked and it may help you get better, deeper sleep. You don’t need science to tell you that better, deeper sleep only helps you be healthier.

                  6. It can help your skin.

                  For once your body gets to breathe. Your private parts, armpits, and feet are generally restricted all day and are often covered by multiple layers, even in the summer time. Give those parts a chance to air out and breathe. This can lower the risk of skin diseases, like athlete’s foot, that result from wet, restricted skin.[3]

                  7. It helps you regulate your cortisol.

                  Cortisol is a very strange chemical in the body but it can do a lot of damage. When you sleep naked, it helps keep your body temperature at the optimal ranges so your body can better create cortisol. If you sleep overheated your cortisol levels tend to stay high, even after you wake up. This can lead to increased anxiety, cravings for bad food, weight gain, and more terrible things.[4] Sleep naked so you can keep your body temperature down and sleep well so your body can properly produce and regulate cortisol.

                  Advertising

                  8. It balances your melatonin and growth hormone.

                  Continuing along that same vein, keeping your sleeping environment below 70 degrees (F) every night can help your body regulate its melatonin and growth hormone levels. These chemicals help the body do things like prevent aging and are essential to good health. When you sleep in clothes, your body heats up and prevents effective use of these hormones. In other words, sleeping with clothes on makes you grow old faster.

                  9. It can keep your sex organs happier.

                  For men, the cooler sleeping conditions allows your testes to remain at a cooler temperature. This helps keep your sperm healthy and your reproductive systems functioning as normal. For women, the cooler and more airy sleeping conditions can actually help prevent yeast infections. Yeast grows better in warm, moist conditions.[5] When it’s cooler and dryer, the growth of yeast is prevented.

                  10. Sleeping in the summer is more bearable.

                    Summertime is a tricky time to get good sleep. If you don’t have air conditioning, then you may find your bedroom a bit stuffy at night.

                    Advertising

                    Shedding those bedtime clothes can help the bedroom feel more comfortable. You may even be able to turn the A/C off on those cooler nights, which can save you a few bucks on your electricity bill.

                    Don’t wake up drenched in sweat again because your thermostat is downstairs and the hot air expands up to your bedroom where the thermostat can’t read the warm temperatures.

                    Sleep well with your naked body!

                    With these tips in mind, it’s time to start taking off your clothes at night!

                    Of course, there are times where clothes are preferable. If you are ill or it’s cold outside, then you should sleep with clothes on to help you stay warm and prevent further illness. Otherwise, go commando!

                    If you’re looking for more tips to sleep well and get up feeling energetic, I recommend you to check out this guide:

                    Want to Feel More Energized Throughout the Day? Start With This

                    Reference

                    Read Next