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Study Tip: How to Find the Hidden Bias in a Test

Study Tip: How to Find the Hidden Bias in a Test
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    Life isn’t fair. Why should tests be?

    Virtually all tests have have hidden biases. These biases aren’t usually large and most instructors will do their best to minimize it. However, knowing the bias of a test can be an added tool for allocating study time.

    What is a Testing Bias?

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    Testing bias is when a test favors students who understand particular concepts or have particular types of knowledge. An example would be a test that is all definitions. This obviously benefits students who understand the word associations and their meanings. Knowing how different concepts can be applied in real life wouldn’t be as relevant on such a test.

    Sometimes testing bias is intentional. Test creators will format the test so it evaluates the knowledge they want you to have. This is the best type of bias to look out for because it will probably continue into the future. The examiner who wants you to know definitions above all else will continue placing that bias into future tests.

    Sometimes the bias is a by-product of something else. Multiple-choice tests tend to evaluate certain types of understandings more strongly than essay-response tests. Information in a particular format may be difficult to test, so the test makers may bias the test towards concepts that are easier to evaluate.

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    What to Look Out For

    Here are some things to keep in mind when try to find the bias of a test:

    1. Memorization Versus Understanding. Does the test value students who can recite specific definitions and facts? Or does it value a comprehensive understanding more than memorized elements?
    2. Narrow Versus Broad. Does the test value students who can apply information within a narrow context or a broad one? The difference might mean emphasizing study time on specific, practical questions or spending more time thinking about different ways to use the information.
    3. Agreement Versus Quality. If the test has a subjective marking component, does the marker tend to value agreement with stated opinions or original thought? Some markers only want to hear reflections of their stated opinions. Others want you to write something thought provoking. Know the difference.
    4. Average Versus Extreme. What is the standard deviation of grades? Is virtually the same mark given for “showing effort” or are the mark differences high? When a lot of extra effort won’t yield better grades, save your time and invest it where time matters.
    5. Hinting Versus Tricking. Some tests will hint towards the correct answer in the question. Usually this isn’t obvious, but it can come from using words that might cause you to consider the correct choice. Other tests try to avoid this by doing the opposite – intentionally putting in leading words to throw you off-course. This bias can be helpful in evaluating your intuition.

    Those are just a few of the many different biases a test can have. Keep in mind that these biases are usually mild. They should serve as a guide for where you can emphasize study time, but can’t be used as a blueprint to ace a test you know nothing about (in most cases, at least).

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    How to Find a Testing Bias

    Now that you have a few ideas for what to look for, here are some places you can use to start devising a studying strategy:

    1. Past Tests. These are the goldmine of searching for testing bias. Scan through them and any answer keys provided. Not only can they give you generalized biases the test might have (as mentioned above) but also content biases. What specific information is tested repeatedly and what is rarely tested?
    2. Course Outlines. Usually the course will have a broad description of the purpose and evaluation methods of the course. This can be a starting point to uncover any potential biases.
    3. Talk to Past Students. Other students will have a good feel for what kind of biases a test demonstrated, even if they didn’t prepare for it themselves. Get a feel for what kind of questions were asked and where emphasis was placed. Warning: If you are going to use this approach, make sure you ask several students from different periods, otherwise you might be led to believe a test is biased when it was just randomness from that particular version or student.
    4. Ask Your Professor. I don’t find this to be as useful as asking past students. It can reveal any intentional biases, but often neglects the unintentional biases because of testing method. But asking professors can be useful for getting information about what is important and what is not.

    Don’t Obsess About Testing Bias, But Don’t Ignore It

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    Trying to find the testing bias won’t help you if you don’t know anything. Simply use it as a tool to allocate study time. If you realize there is a heavy memorization bias, spend more time with memorization techniques than exploring background concepts. It can also be used in-test when making decisions between several options. If the test has a hinting bias, you can feel more comfortable using your intuition when you aren’t sure.

    That warning said, testing bias does matter. Although I never intentionally go into a test without knowing the subject, I have done few extra-curricular exams that I wasn’t aware I needed to write before the test date. By searching for the testing bias I was able to score high despite not fully understanding many of the concepts covered.

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    How Setting Personal Goals Makes You a Greater Achiever

    How Setting Personal Goals Makes You a Greater Achiever

    Achieving personal goals deserves a huge amount of celebration but setting these goals in the first place is a massive achievement in itself.

    While the big goals serve as a destination, the journey is probably the most important part of the process. It reflects your progress, your growth and your ability take control and steer your life towards positive change.

    Whatever your goal is, whether it’s losing 20lbs or learning a new language, there will always be a set amount of steps you need to take in order to achieve it. Once you’ve set your sights on your goal, the next stage is to take an assertive path towards how you will get there.

    The aim of this article is to guide you through how to take action towards your personal goals in a way that will help you achieve them strategically and successfully.

    1. Get very specific

    When it comes to setting your personal goals, honing in on its specifics is crucial for success.

    It’s common to have a broad idea of where you want to go or what you want to achieve, but this can sabotage your efforts in the long run.

    Get clear on what you want your goal to look like so you can create solid steps towards it.

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    Say you have a vision on retiring early. This goal feels good to you and you can envision filling your days of work-free life with worldly adventures and time with loved ones.

    If retiring early is a serious personal goal for you, you will need to insert a timeframe. So your goal has changed from “I’d like to someday retire early and travel the world” to “I’m going to retire by 50 and travel the world”.

    It may not seem significant, but creating this tweak in your goal by specifying a definite time, will help create and structure the steps needed to achieve it in a more purposeful way.

    2. Identify the preparation you need to achieve your goal

    It’s easy to set a goal and excitedly, yet aimlessly move towards it. But this way of going about achieving goals will only leave you eventually lost and feeling like you’ll never achieve it.

    You have to really think about what you need to do in order to make this goal possible. It’s all very well wanting it to happen, but if you just sit back and hope you’ll get there one day will result in disappointment.

    Self-managing your goals is a crucial step in the process. This involves taking control of your goal, owning it and making sure you are in a great position to make it happen.

    In the early retirement example, this would mean you will need to think about your financial situation.

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    What will your finances ideally need to look like if you were to retire early and travel the world? How much money will you need to put into your retirement fund to retire at 50? How much extra savings will you need to support your travels? You could also start researching the places you’d like to travel to and how long you’d like to travel for.

    Outlining these factors will, not only make your goal seem more tangible, but also create a mind shift to one of forward motion. Seeing the steps more clearly will help you make a more useful plan of action and seeing your goal as a reality.

    3. Breakdown each step into more manageable goals

    The secret to achieving your goals is to create smaller goals within each step and take action. Remember, you’re looking for progress, no matter how small it may seem.

    These small steps build up and get you to the top. By doing this, you also make the whole process much less daunting and overwhelming.

    In the early retirement scenario, there are several smaller goals you could implement here:

    • Decide to make an appointment with a financial advisor asking what financial options would be available to you if you were to go into early retirement and travel. Get advice on how much you would need to top up your funds in order to reach your goal on time.
    • Set up and start to make payments into the retirement fund.
    • Research savings accounts with good rates of interest and commit to depositing a certain amount each month.
    • Make sure you meet with your financial advisor each year to make sure your retirement plan remains the best one for you. Research new savings accounts to move your money into to reap the best returns in interest rates.
    • Start investing in travel books, building up a library that covers where you want to go.
    • Think about starting a language course that will help you get the most out of your travel experience.

    4. Get started on the journey

    Creating a goal planner in which you can start writing down your next steps is where the magic happens. This is where the real momentum towards your dream starts!

    Create a schedule and start by writing in when you will start the first task and on which day. Commit to completing this small task and feel the joy of crossing it off your list. Do this with every little step until your first mini goal has been reached.

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    In the early retirement example, schedule in a meeting with a financial advisor. That’s it. Easy.

    As I mentioned before, it may seem such a small step but it’s the momentum that’s the most important element here. Once you cross this off, you can focus on the meeting itself, then once that’s ticked off, you are in a position of starting a profitable retirement fund…and so the momentum continues. You are now on your journey to achieving your dream goal.

    5. Create an annual review

    Taking a step back and reviewing your progress is essential for keeping yourself on the right track. Sometimes you can be moving full steam ahead towards your goal but miss seeing the opportunities to improve a process or even re-evaluate your feelings towards the goal.

    Nominate a day each year to sit down and take a look at your progress. Celebrate your achievements and how far you’ve come. But also think about changing any of the remaining steps in light of new circumstances.

    Has anything changed? Perhaps you got a promotion at work and you feel you can add more to your monthly savings.

    Do you still feel the same about your goal? It’s normal for our desires to change over time and our personal goals need to reflect this.

    Perhaps you’d like to take someone new with you on your travels and you need to take this into account regarding timelines. Are there any new steps you want to add as a result?

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    Remember, reflection is a useful tool in realigning your goal to any changes and it’s important to keep on the right trajectory towards it.

    Strive to become the best goal-setter you can be

    Having personal goals gives you purpose and the feeling of becoming a better version of yourself.

    But it’s the smaller steps within these big goals that the growth and achievement really lies:

    • Whatever your goal is, make sure you get specific on when you want to achieve it. This helps you focus on the necessary steps much more efficiently.
    • Research the actionable steps required to get to the end result and…
    • Break these down into smaller, manageable goals.
    • Create a daily or weekly schedule for these smaller goals and start the positive momentum.
    • Reflect each year on your goal journey and purpose, readjusting steps according to changes in circumstance or desire.

    Keep going and always have the end goal in sight. Remember the ‘why’ behind your goal throughout to keep you motivated and positive.

    Featured photo credit: Pexels via pexels.com

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