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10 Master Principles of Animation

10 Master Principles of Animation

If you are interested in animated films, here’s a basic explanation what animators do to create 2D or 3D films.

Disney developed a system back in the 1940’s which can explain the process well.

Enjoy!

Below is a list from Old Disney master “Ollie Johnston” with a few adjustments.

1. Animators do not illustrate words or mechanical movements  

                                                                                                                                  They illustrate ideas & thoughts, with attitudes and actions. We can see in the drawing below of the little girl how her body is shifted down towards screen left and her head is positioned evenly at a 3/4 position to the screen. The eyes have us leading our eye towards what she is looking at. The body position is helping us determine she is somewhat reserved in her approach. The brows are leading upwards and angled in such a way that we can feel the intensity of the lift and the muscles working in the face to lift the brows. The mouth slightly open but not stretched fully also gives us a sense of awe. Most people do this when staring at something they are unfamiliar with. The clothes and hair position also play a role in executing ideas and thoughts but in a much less obvious way.

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    2. Animators Squash and stretch characters bodies for better visual attitudes.                                                                                                              

    This is very straight forward. In the picture below an exaggerated tongue is used to push the action even further.

    No bull tongue can do what is happening in this drawing but in the cartoon world anything is possible!

      3. They tend to move things before the dialogue/sound even reaches our ears!

      Animators have somewhat of a standard thing they must all remember in there daily routines while at work. Things move 2, 4 or even 8 frames before you can hear dialogue. It is a trick that just stuck over time. Eyesight has a quicker response vs sound which is why animators use this principle.

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        4. Many good animators spend 1/8th to 1/4 of there time planning and 3/4 the time animating in CG.

        The following sketches are rough drawings where the artist is seeking form and planning out positioning which best suits the dialogue and scene.

          5. Some super talented & experienced animators do not plan. They just animate from frame 1 and let things flow.

          The animator with a strait-ahead approach would not require all these mouse poses to be created beforehand. They would create them as they went along.

            6. Animators anticipate everything! Most times they require a pose which shows what is going to happen next.

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            Bugs Bunny hits this “anticipation” pose before running. It adds a whimsical nature to what we see on screen which = entertainment.

              7. Everything pretty much moves in an Arc in animation. Unless something is specifically meant to move in a straight line.

              The red dots here signify spacing between objects. This spacing determines the fluidity of movement & acting on screen.

                8. Exaggeration in animation provides a sense of excitement and visual entertainment vs static drawings or movement.

                The drawing below shows exactly why realism has very little if any on screen entertainment value.

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                Developing a sense for good exaggeration in both 2D and 3D, is a learned skill which gets stronger over time.

                  9. Overlap, Settle, & Secondary Animation are other key components to good animation

                  Author Richard Williams depicts the seaweed movement as a perfect reference for people to see how it plays into principles.

                  richard williams book

                    10. A process called “slow in and slow out” is also a key component to why animation looks so appealing on screen. 

                    Below the pendulum swings from left to right but has more drawings closer to each other when moving in and out of position at the top.

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                      praveen nadaraju

                      Classical & Computer Animator & Industrial Designer

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                      Last Updated on October 29, 2018

                      What Causes Brain Fog? (7 Things You Can Do to Prevent and Stop It)

                      What Causes Brain Fog? (7 Things You Can Do to Prevent and Stop It)

                      Brain fog is more of a symptom than a medical condition itself, but this doesn’t mean it should be ignored. Brain fog is a cognitive dysfunction, which can lead to memory problems, lack of mental clarity and an inability to focus.

                      Many often excuse brain fog for a bad day, or get so used to it that they ignore it. Unfortunately, when brain fog is ignored it ends up interfering with work and school. The reason many ignore it is because they aren’t fully aware of what causes it and how to deal with it.

                      It’s important to remember that if your brain doesn’t function fully — nothing else in your life will. Most people have days where they can’t seem to concentrate or forget where they put their keys.

                      It’s very normal to have days where you can’t think clearly, but if you’re experiencing these things on a daily basis, then you’re probably dealing with brain fog for a specific reason.

                      So what causes brain fog? It can be caused by a string of things, so we’ve made a list things that causes brain fog and how to prevent it and how to stop it.

                      1. Stress

                      It’s no surprise that we’ll find stress at the top of the list. Most people are aware of the dangers of stress. It can increase blood pressure, trigger depression and make us sick as it weakens our immune system.

                      Another symptom is mental fatigue. When you’re stressed your brain can’t function at its best. It gets harder to think and focus, which makes you stress even more.

                      Stress can be prevented by following some simple steps. If you’re feeling stressed you should avoid caffeine, alcohol and nicotine — even though it may feel like it helps in the moment. Two other important steps are to indulge in more physical activities and to talk to someone about it.

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                      Besides that, you can consider keeping a stress diary, try relaxation techniques like mediation, getting more sleep and maybe a new approach to time management.

                      2. Diet

                      Most people know that the right or wrong diet can make them gain or loss weight, but not enough people think about the big impact a specific diet can have on one’s health even if it might be healthy.

                      One of the most common vitamin deficiencies is vitamin B12 deficiency and especially vegans can be get hid by brain fog, because their diet often lacks the vitamin B-12. The vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to mental and neurological disorders.

                      The scary thing is that almost 40 % of adults are estimated to lack B12 in their diet. B12 is found in animal products, which is why many vegans are in B12 deficiency, but this doesn’t mean that people need animal products to prevent the B12 deficiency. B12 can be taken as a supplement, which will make the problem go away.

                      Another vital vitamin that can cause brain fog is vitamin D. More than 1 billion people worldwide don’t have enough vitamin D in their diet. Alongside B12 and vitamin D is omega-3, which because of its fatty acids helps the brain function and concentrate. Luckily, both vitamin D and omega-3 can be taken as supplements.

                      Then there’s of course also the obvious unhealthy foods like sugar. Refined carbohydrates like sugar will send your blood sugar levels up, and then send you right back down. This will lead to brain fog, because your brain uses glucose as its main source of fuel and once you start playing around with your brain — it gets confused.

                      Besides being hit by brain fog, you’ll also experience tiredness, mood swings and mental confusion. So, if you want to have clear mind, then stay away from sugar.

                      Sometimes the same type of diet can be right for some and wrong for others. If you’re experiencing brain fog it’s a good idea to seek out your doctor or a nutritionist. They can take some tests and help you figure out which type of diet works best for your health, or find out if you’re lacking something specific in your diet.

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                      3. Allergies

                      If you have food allergies, or are simply a bit sensitive to specific foods, then eating those foods can lead to brain fog. Look out for dairy, peanuts and aspartame that are known to have a bad effect on the brain.

                      Most people get their calories from corn, soy and wheat — and big surprise — these foods are some of the most common foods people are allergic to. If you’re in doubt, then you can look up food allergies[1] and find some of the most common symptoms.

                      If you’re unsure about being allergic or sensitive, then you can start out by cutting out a specific food from your diet for a week or two. If the brain fog disappears, then you’re most likely allergic or sensitive to this food. The symptoms will usually go away after a week or two once you remove the trigger food from the diet.

                      If you still unsure, then you should seek out the help of your doctor.

                      4. Lack of sleep

                      All of us know we need sleep to function, but it’s different for everybody how much sleep they need. A few people can actually function on as little as 3-4 hours of sleep every night, but these people are very, very rare.

                      Most people need 8 to 9 hours of sleep. If you don’t get the sleep you need, then this will interfere with your brain and you may experience brain fog.

                      Instead of skipping a few hours of sleep to get ahead of things you need to do, you’ll end up taking away productive hours from your day, because you won’t be able to concentrate and your thoughts will be cloudy.

                      Many people have trouble sleeping but you can help improve your sleep by a following a few simple steps.

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                      There is the 4-7-8 Breathing Exercise, which is a technique that regulates your breath and helps you fall asleep faster. Another well-known technique is to avoid bright lights before you go to sleep.

                      A lot of us are guilty of falling asleep with the TV on or with our phone right by us, but the blue lights from these screens suppresses the production of melatonin in our bodies, which actually makes us stay awake longer instead. If you’re having trouble going to sleep without doing something before you close your eyes, then try taking up reading instead.

                      If you want to feel more energized throughout the day, start doing this.

                      5. Hormonal changes

                      Brain fog can be triggered by hormonal changes. Whenever your levels of progesterone and estrogen increases, you may experience short-term cognitive impairment and your memory can get bad.

                      If you’re pregnant or going through menopause, then you shouldn’t worry too much if your mind suddenly starts to get a bit cloudy. Focus on keeping a good diet, getting enough of sleep and the brain fog should pass once you’re back to normal.

                      6. Medication

                      If you’re on some medication, then it’s very normal to start experiencing some brain fog.

                      You may start to forget things that you used to be able to remember, or you get easily confused. Maybe you can’t concentrate the same way that you used to. All of these things can be very scary, but you shouldn’t worry too much about it.

                      Brain fog is a very normal side effect of drugs, but by lowering your dosage or switching over to another drug; the side effect can’t often be improved and maybe even completely removed.

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                      7. Medical condition

                      Brain fog can often be a symptom of a medical condition. Medical conditions that include inflammation, fatigue, changes in blood glucose level are known to cause brain fog.

                      Conditions like chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, anemia, depression, diabetes, migraines, hypothyroidism, Sjögren syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Lupus and dehydration can all cause brain fog.[2]

                      The bottom line

                      If you haven’t been diagnosed, then never start browsing around Google for the conditions and the symptoms. Once you start looking for it; it’s very easy to (wrongfully) self-diagnose.

                      Take a step back, put away the laptop and relax. If you’re worried about being sick, then always check in with your doctor and take it from there.

                      Remember, the list of things that can cause brain fog is long and it can be something as simple as the wrong diet or not enough sleep.

                      Featured photo credit: Asdrubal luna via unsplash.com

                      Reference

                      [1]Food Allergy: Common Allergens
                      [2]HealthLine: 6 Possible Causes of Brain Fog

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