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The Art of Proofreading and Why You Should Learn It

The Art of Proofreading and Why You Should Learn It

Most people focus on learning the techniques to write a stellar essay. However, it is easy to overlook mistakes in your own writing. To ensure you have created a quality written work, you need to proofread effectively. No matter how important the content of the piece is, if there are notable issues within the essay, you can lose a level of creditability.

If you are interested in learning to proofread with the highest level of skill, consider the following tips to get you started.

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1. Step Away from the Essay

Your first step to becoming an effective proofreader is to simply walk away from your work. This allows you to return to the piece with fresh eyes, making it easier to spot mistakes. One of the biggest issues with proofreading immediately after you finish writing is that you know what you intended to say. This can lead you to simply skim across the words instead of examining them individually. By walking away, you are less likely to remember exactly what you wrote. When you read the piece again, it will feel less familiar and you will read the text more carefully, and errors will be more apparent.

2. Double-Check Important Details

If you cite specific facts, figures, or names within your piece, take the time to make sure they are correct. For facts, make sure you can find the same information reported from multiple sources, or that your single resource is highly reputable. If you include any calculations, double-check the math to ensure there were no accidental errors.

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Misspelling a person’s name can be seen as a major negative, and even insulting. Whether it is the name of someone you spoke to personally to gather information or the name of someone well-known in their field, make sure that all names are spelt correctly. This is especially true for any name that has multiple acceptable spellings that produce the same sound when spoken. For example, Catherine and Kathryn are pronounced the same, even though the spelling is quite different. Make sure you use the correct version to refer to a specific person.

3. Print a Copy to Review

Sometimes it is easier to proofread an essay on paper than over a computer screen. Take the old-fashioned approach and print the document. Pick up a red pen and correct any issues you find. Once you have reviewed the entire document, make the corrections on the version saved on your computer.

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The reason you should consider using a red pen is that it will stand out from the colour of the printed text. This helps you locate the changes you have made once you decide to correct them in the original document. You can choose to use another colour, as long as it will be easy to review once your corrections are complete.

4. Read the Essay Out Loud

By reading the work out loud, you are more likely to examine each word individually. While word processing may not show any spelling errors, it can’t always determine if the right word is being used. Reading the essay out loud can help locate words that are spelt correctly, but are not the right words given the context of the sentence.

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It can also make it easier to find grammatical or structural issues, as they will often feel unnatural when spoken. If you prefer not to read the piece out loud personally, consider uploading the document into text-to-speech software that can read it to you. This will produce a similar effect, as you will hear which parts may be written incorrectly, but you don’t have to recite it on your own.

5. Get Help Proofreading

If you have issues proofreading your own work, don’t hesitate to get outside help. A friend, family member, or fellow student may be able to proofread your essay for you. Professional proofreading and essay help services are also available to those who may not have someone readily available to assist.

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Last Updated on September 10, 2018

Overcoming The Pain Of A Breakup: 3 Suggestions Based On Science

Overcoming The Pain Of A Breakup: 3 Suggestions Based On Science

We thought that the expression ‘broken heart’ was just a metaphor, but science is telling us that it is not: breakups and rejections do cause physical pain. When a group of psychologists asked research participants to look at images of their ex-partners who broke up with them, researchers found that the same brain areas that are activated by physical pain are also activated by looking at images of ex-partners. Looking at images of our ex is a painful experience, literally.[1].

Given that the effect of rejections and breakups is the same as the effect of physical pain, scientists have speculated on whether the practices that reduce physical pain could be used to reduce the emotional pain that follows from breakups and rejections. In a study on whether painkillers reduce the emotional pain caused by a breakup, researchers found that painkillers did help. Individuals who took painkillers were better able to deal with their breakup. Tamar Cohen wrote that “A simple dose of paracetamol could help ease the pain of a broken heart.”[2]

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Just like painkillers can be used to ease the pain of a broken heart, other practices that ease physical pain can also be used to ease the pain of rejections and breakups. Three of these scientifically validated practices are presented in this article.

Looking at images of loved ones

While images of ex-partners stimulate the pain neuro-circuitry in our brain, images of loved ones activate a different circuitry. Looking at images of people who care about us increases the release of oxytocin in our body. Oxytocin, or the “cuddle hormone,” is the hormone that our body relies on to induce in us a soothing feeling of tranquility, even when we are under high stress and pain.

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In fact, oxytocin was found to have a crucial role as a mother is giving birth to her baby. Despite the extreme pain that a mother has to endure during delivery, the high level of oxytocin secreted by her body transforms pain into pleasure. Mariem Melainine notes that, “Oxytocin levels are usually at their peak during delivery, which promotes a sense of euphoria in the mother and helps her develop a stronger bond with her baby.”[3]

Whenever you feel tempted to look at images of your ex-partner, log into your Facebook page and start browsing images of your loved ones. As Eva Ritvo, M.D. notes, “Facebook fools our brain into believing that loved ones surround us, which historically was essential to our survival. The human brain, because it evolved thousands of years before photography, fails on many levels to recognize the difference between pictures and people”[4]

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Exercise

Endorphins are neurotransmitters that reduce our perception of pain. When our body is high on endorphins, painful sensations are kept outside of conscious awareness. It was found that exercise causes endorphins to be secreted in the brain and as a result produce a feeling of power, as psychologist Alex Korb noted in his book: “Exercise causes your brain to release endorphins, neurotransmitters that act on your neurons like opiates (such as morphine or Vicodin) by sending a neural signal to reduce pain and provide anxiety relief.”[5] By inhibiting pain from being transmitted to our brain, exercise acts as a powerful antidote to the pain caused by rejections and breakups.

Meditation

Jon Kabat Zinn, a doctor who pioneered the use of mindfulness meditation therapy for patients with chronic pain, has argued that it is not pain itself that is harmful to our mental health, rather, it is the way we react to pain. When we react to pain with irritation, frustration, and self-pity, more pain is generated, and we enter a never ending spiral of painful thoughts and sensations.

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In order to disrupt the domino effect caused by reacting to pain with pain, Kabat Zinn and other proponents of mindfulness meditation therapy have suggested reacting to pain through nonjudgmental contemplation and acceptance. By practicing meditation on a daily basis and getting used to the habit of paying attention to the sensations generated by our body (including the painful ones and by observing these sensations nonjudgmentally and with compassion) our brain develops the habit of reacting to pain with grace and patience.

When you find yourself thinking about a recent breakup or a recent rejection, close your eyes and pay attention to the sensations produced by your body. Take deep breaths and as you are feeling the sensations produced by your body, distance yourself from them, and observe them without judgment and with compassion. If your brain starts wandering and gets distracted, gently bring back your compassionate nonjudgmental attention to your body. Try to do this exercise for one minute and gradually increase its duration.

With consistent practice, nonjudgmental acceptance will become our default reaction to breakups, rejections, and other disappointments that we experience in life. Every rejection and every breakup teaches us great lessons about relationships and about ourselves.

Featured photo credit: condesign via pixabay.com

Reference

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