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5 Different Nursing Leadership Styles And Their Impact On Patient Outcomes

5 Different Nursing Leadership Styles And Their Impact On Patient Outcomes

The world’s population is aging. This aging population is also living a lot longer. In fact, by 2050 16% of the world’s population will be 65 years of age and older. The number of people aged 85 and over will also increase by 351% while the number of people aged 65 and over will increase by 188%.

Many of the increased elderly will inevitably suffer from chronic diseases. Currently 4 out of 5 elderly people in the United States have multiple chronic medical conditions and 60% of people aged 67 or older have 3 or more chronic illnesses.

This aging population, and the increase of chronic illnesses, will increase the need for professional and high quality nurses. This is why 1.12 million nurses are anticipated to be needed for new jobs or replacement between 2012 and 2022. These nurses will need to be highly skilled and able to work in a variety of potential settings.

Changing View of Nurses

In the past nurses have typically been viewed as subordinates without a need for leadership skills or capabilities. They were not expected to be leaders in the healthcare field and this lowered the respect and expectations associated with the position.

Luckily times have changed. In today’s world nurses are viewed as important healthcare partners and are increasingly involved in the leadership of dynamic healthcare teams. They are being required to take on new responsibilities, and also remain up to date with the advancements in medical technology and the constantly evolving healthcare trends. They are expected to be extremely competent and participate in a high level of education like the cutting edge programs being offered. Most importantly the next generation of nurses will be expected to take a hands-on role as competent leaders in the healthcare field.

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Nursing Leadership Styles

Nurses have the unique opportunity to apply leadership styles in a way that can also affect patient outcomes. Here are some of the leadership styles and traits that every nurse should know:

1. Transactional Leadership

Transactional leaders ensure staff compliance through a system of punishments and rewards. Every interaction is based on a transaction. When a person follows instructions and obtains an objective, they receive a reward. When they fail to follow an instruction or meet an objective, they are disciplined.

When practicing this style of leadership there is a high priority on supervision. This can be a very effective style for managing a crisis or ensuring that projects are completed with a high level of detail.

2. Transformational Leadership

Transformational leaders tend to lead by example. When followers see this example, they are inspired to change or do better. Transformational leaders also demonstrate that they truly care about their followers and their best interests. They accomplish this by putting the needs and priorities of the organization above their own.

They have a clear vision and they use that vision to motivate their staff members. Innovation is embraced and people are encouraged to generate new ideas. This can be a very effective style for managing teams that need to implement a significant change.

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3. Democratic Leadership

These leaders encourage everyone on the team to have a voice in the decision making process. There is a focus on open communication and ensuring that everyone feels like they are heard. There is a lot of focus on processes and the best way to influence situations.

Staff members are empowered with responsibilities and held accountable for meeting goals. This style requires a lot of feedback and can be very effective when the quality of organizational systems or processes need to be improved.

4. Authoritarian Leadership

This can best be described as the opposite of democratic leadership. With this style the leader makes all of the decisions which results in a much faster decision making process. The power is retained at the top and that is also where the knowledge and information is kept.

Staff members are often made an example of, if they make a mistake and are punished in front of their peers. Issues are always assumed to be the fault of the individual staff member and never the system or process. This style can be effective in emergencies where immediate decisions need to be made.

5. Laissez-faire Leadership

When this style is practiced there is very little supervision. There is a very hands-off approach. People are trusted to do well on their own with very little guidance. Independent thinking is promoted, but it can stall the decision making process and result in few changes being made in the workplace.

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There is little attention to quality improvement. This style can be effective when you are dealing with an experienced team who require little direction. However, it is commonly practiced by inexperienced leaders and leaders who are just waiting to transition.

How Leadership Styles Impact Patient Outcomes

There have been many studies that have evaluated how the leadership styles of nurses affect patient outcomes. For example, studies have found that the practice of transformational leadership by nurses is associated with reduced medication errors. This is believed to be because people are more careful when being led with this approach. Studies have also shown that this style produces lower patient mortality rates due to a better quality of care and treatment.

Studies continue to prove that relational types of leadership, styles which include transformation and collaboration, result in a higher level of patient satisfaction. In other words, patients report that they are happier when nurses practice these styles. This reduces the need for restraint and increases the level of patient cooperation.

How Leadership Styles Impact Hospital Staff

Studies have also shown that transformational leadership plays an important role in creating a safe and happy work environment. Hospitals that practice this style of leadership have a lower level of turnover when compared to other hospitals.

 When a laissez-faire style of leadership is used on the other hand, studies have shown that it negatively impacts teamwork and socialization. This creates a culture where blame is prevalent and stress in increased. Turnover is ultimately increased.

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Nurses are also able to easily tell the difference between transactional and transformational leadership. They are overwhelmingly in favor of the transformational style. They cite intrinsic motivation and improved job satisfaction as the main reasons behind this choice.

Conclusion

The world is changing and a new generation of nurses is needed to help meet the demand of the evolving healthcare community. These nurses are expected to take on a leadership role within the hospital making their knowledge of effective leadership styles critical.

They should know the strengths and weaknesses of the styles and when is the best time to implement each one. This should be based on their knowledge of the situation and each style’s effect on patient outcomes. This will help to ensure that all patients receive the optimal level of care as we continue to confront the challenges of our new healthcare realities.

Featured photo credit: i.huffpost.com via i.huffpost.com

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Last Updated on February 20, 2019

Achieve Career Success at Any Age: 17 Things to Keep in Mind

Achieve Career Success at Any Age: 17 Things to Keep in Mind

“Success” is defined as “the accomplishment of an aim or purpose.”

Ipso facto, as long as you have a purpose you can be a success. Being “successful” can occur at any age, from youth to the retirement home. It can be in any field of endeavor – just ask the folks doing triathlons in their late 80s. It can be as simple as running a foot race, and as complex as starting a new business, or as important as being a caregiver to the terminally ill.

Succeeding is the norm for many people. In my life, I was a high school track star, running the high hurdles despite being “vertically challenged”. I launched a successful semiconductor services company that was profitable from day one. I grew that startup into a publicly traded semiconductor company, that I ran for 37 years (36 profitably). I completed taking the company public shortly after going blind, and still led the company as its CEO for another 20 years. And now in my so-called retirement, I am writing books that are required reading in business schools.

And I’m nothing special. I just understood early on that “success” is a mindset, and that there are a few necessary tactics to being successful.

Interestingly, the same factors that tend to make you successful in one of those endeavors are the same factors that make you successful in all of them. Here are the attributes I find to be most enduring.

1. Learn to love doing the things you hate

Don’t you love to procrastinate? Sure. Everyone does. But procrastination is the #1 barrier to success, even more so than self-doubt.

We procrastinate most about the things we dislike – everything from doing the dishes to doing our taxes. But putting off the things we hate improves nothing and impregnates our minds with the dread of having to do it anyway.

When you learn to find amusement or joy in doing what you hate, you quit hating it and quit procrastinating too.

But how do you find joy in unlovable tasks? Two elements are important:

First, search for how the task adds to your overall connection. For example, many tech leaders have no love for accounting until they learn how those numbers help them to monitor the success of their operations or anticipate changes in their markets. Knowing how the unlovable fulfills the lovable is a large first step.

Secondly, find joy in the intricacy of the task itself. This is a bit Zen in nature, but focusing intently on the task at hand detaches you from other concerns. Consider focusing intently on unwelcome task as a vacation from other worries.

2. Start the day doing the “Tough Things First”

I published my first book – Tough Things First – in my late 70s. Writing a book, finding a publisher, doing speaking tours, signing what seems like millions of autographs was tough. But in 37 years of running the semiconductor company I founded and took public, I learned that the small problems largely solve themselves once the big, tough problem is completed.

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No matter what you are trying to accomplish, list what needs doing that day and put the hardest, most difficult task on the top of the list – or as I like to say, “eat the ugly frog first.” This makes you happier, more energized and about 20% more productive.

The easy way to achieve this is simply write down the ten most urgent and important things that need doing, then sort that list starting with the least enjoyable – the ugly frogs. Don’t even think about task #2 until task #1 is finished.

3. Watch your health

Good health and good success go hand-in-hand. Nobody does well when they don’t feel well, so get a good night’s rest, eat a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and don’t stress small stuff.

Many successful people I know like to exercise in the morning. By making this a priority, they build-in an activity that aids in good sleep and is known to help with stress reduction.

It is also a good time to mentally create your list of ten urgent and important tasks.

4. If you are young, think old; if you are old, think young

Youth may be wasted on the young, but old age is wasted on the elderly too. It is the intersection of wisdom and exuberance that makes really great things happen.

The young can learn the wisdom of their elders, and the old can always find something new to try. Embrace every facet of your journey, throughout your journey.

Thinking old when you are young is quite easy and starts by finding a mentor. Everyone needs a mentor, even if it is just calling “dear old dad” and asking for advice.

For entrepreneurs, you reach out to experienced business people, most of whom genuinely love helping.

For older folks, thinking young is a bit trickier. Foremost, keep your curiosity well fed. Youth is all about adventure, experience and learning, and none of that happens unless you are curious. A good way to stay curious starts with assuming you don’t know everything and unlearning old falsehoods. Start your day (after your morning exercise and ugly frog eating) challenging an assumption you are ready to speak and do so by asking a question.

5. Be a good listener

Success comes from learning, and you can’t learn when you are talking. Seek to understand before being understood, listen actively, ask questions and absorb. This will garner you all the information you need to make better decisions.

The right way to listen is to do so actively. Concentrate on every word the other person says, ignore your internal monologue, and suppress the natural desire to form your next statement in advance.

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These 13 Powerful Listening Skills will improve your work and life.

6. Dress one level better than required

Mark Twain allegedly once joked that:

“Clothes make the man. Naked people have little or no influence in society.”

It doesn’t matter if the occasion is a job interview, a date, a business meeting or a social gathering. People who underdress underwhelm.

Think about how you would want to perceive an interesting person at the occasion, then dress 10% better.

Even if you’re on a tight budget, here’re still some tips for you to dress for success.

7. Be wise, not smart

There are a lot of people who are smart and can critically think, but often they think toward the wrong conclusion.

To be wise is to have experience, knowledge, and good judgment. You don’t need to first acquire a life time of wisdom – you can get that on the fly from mentors. But you do need to bow toward wisdom as much, and perhaps more so, than sly pondering.

One aspect of wisdom is anticipating all the effects a decision you make may have. Take a moment before making a decision to think about everyone and everything that will be affected, not only immediately but at least once removed (the echo effect).

8. Be trustworthy

My marketing director likes to say that “an untrusted brand is an unprofitable brand”. He is right, and since you have a personal brand, you cannot be successful in life if you are not trusted.

The only way to be worthy of trust is to always do the right thing. Trustworthy people never do these 10 things.

9. Have impeccable integrity

Integrity is the process of doing the right thing even when nobody is watching. Acts of integrity get noticed, especially in our modern era where it appears to be in short supply. When you display integrity, you earn trust (see the bullet above).

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Learn here How to Succeed with Integrity in a Competitive Workplace.

10. Start early and stay late

You need not be a workaholic. Despite founding and leading a public company, I rarely worked more than 50 hours a week. But you do have to put in sufficient time to get your job done, and you need to set good examples for others.

Get going before the day demands your attention, and stay as long as necessary to wrap up loose ends.

11. Work smarter not just harder

This meme sounds trite, but it is very important.

One mistake many people make is taking on personal responsibility for everything instead of delegating. A consultant I know refuses to clean his own house because he charges $100 an hour while a maid costs $20. It is smart of him to pay his maid in order to stay focused.

Knowing when you are working too hard is the goal. Some people thrive on working day and night, but then are surprised when their marriage falls apart. You know you are working too hard when the costs – poor health, bad relationships, grumpy employees – are higher than any benefit you might be acquiring.

12. Never give up

Everyone, including me and you, will face challenges big enough that we want to quit. But quitting is failing, the opposite of success.

If your goal was good enough to start working toward, it is good enough to keep working toward, despite setbacks, despite complications.

Stick to the project until it sticks to you. Giving up is not an option and this it how to stay motivated.

13. Be happy and friendly

Nobody likes helping a grump … and everybody needs help.

And there’re more reasons why you need to make friends at work.

14. Be passionate, not eager

Passion involves having strong feelings or beliefs, while being eager means wanting something.

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We all want things yet wanting is never enough. But being passionate about something provides you fuel for the journey, the desire to start, continue and finish.

Not quite sure about your passion? Leo Babauta has got you some advice to find your passion and live a fulfilling life.

15. Have a clear vision of your purpose and mission

Success is about going somewhere, achieving a goal. But you cannot get to where you want to be unless you know where that is.

If you cannot explain your vision to someone else clearly in a few words (what we call an “elevator pitch”) and make them understand it, then you don’t have a clear view of your destination, and you won’t get many people to follow you.

If in doubt, write down your mission, then share it with someone not involved with your project or business. If they cannot understand what the mission is, then you don’t yet have it firmly defined in your own mind.

16. Be a worthy servant leader

Being successful will likely involve more than just you. It may require employees, community members, family, a congregation, or voters. You succeed only when they do, and that means you have to serve them first.

When you adopt the mindset of “what do I need to do so that they can succeed in the mission I have set forth”, you change the way you and they work together.

17. Be meek, not weak

Meekness involves being quiet and gentle, not submissive. The key is to dispose of your ego and adopt constant humility, which will get you further than sheer drive.

People may obey a hard nosed boss, but they will love and follow a humble leader.

If you want to be an effective leader, don’t miss out this guide:

How to Be an Effective Leader (A Step-By-Step Guide to Upgrade Your Leadership Skills)

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Featured photo credit: rawpixel via unsplash.com

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