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Is Antibiotic Abuse Murdering Our Future & Your Part to Playing Antibiotic Stewardship

Is Antibiotic Abuse Murdering Our Future & Your Part to Playing Antibiotic Stewardship

Modern medicine has given us antibiotics, our go-to-first line of defense. They are not for viruses like common cold or a flu but when you are down with something serious like pneumonia, bronchitis, etc, there is a need for something serious; something potent to kill of the bacteria and get well.

The problem is that bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics, making the antibiotics that you readily get from your doctor less effective. Antibiotic resistance occurs when targeted bacteria show resistance to an antibiotic, continuing to thrive and multiply, even in the presence of an antibiotic’s therapeutic levels.

What is selective pressure in antibiotic resistance?

Selective pressure is an antibiotic influence on natural selection where susceptible bacteria, or those having low chance of survival, are killed or inhibited by the antibiotic while the resistant strains of bacteria are allowed to survive. However, sometimes, the natural selection to promote resistance to antibiotics is influenced at a low level without human action – bacteria have the ability to produce and use antibiotics against other bacteria.

Nonetheless, today’s higher level of antibiotic resistance is solely due to antibiotic abuse or overuse. It’s common in some countries to purchase antibiotics over the counter or take unnecessary dosages to treat viral illnesses, such as the common cold.

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A matter of concern

Whether it is about protecting people from different classes of bacteria or saving countless number of lives since the first antibiotic (penicillin) was clinically used in the 1940s, antibiotics have a significant attribution in the human health history. However, their efficacy has become vulnerable, giving rise to drug-resistant bacteria.

Much of the effectiveness of antibiotics is threatened in the modern food animal industry by the use of low doses of antimicrobials for faster growth of livestock and poultry animals, and to compensate for unhygienic environments they are raised in. This encourages bacteria to resist drugs, and such drug-resistant bacteria come in contact with the general public, either through food, animal or human carriers.

1 death every 3 seconds all around the world

This is a dangerous statistic which will soon become a reality by 2050 if countries don’t take immediate action to control antibiotic resistance. ResistanceMap, a highly visual and interactive online platform, shows the current trends in antibiotic resistance around the globe, including the USA, Europe, and low & middle income countries (LMICs):

  • USA: 2 million serious illnesses, 23,000 deaths, $20 billion additional annual medical costs
  • Europe: 25,000 deaths, €1.5 billion direct and indirect annual costs (EMA and ECDC 2009)
  • India: 58,000 neonatal sepsis deaths (Laxminarayan et al. 2013)
  • Tanzania and Mozambique: Increasing deaths of neonates and children under 5 (Kayange et al. 2010; Roca et al. 2008)
  • Worldwide: 935,000 deaths of children under 5 due to pneumonia (2013)

The 2000-10 data of 71 countries reveals that global antibiotic consumption has grown from 50 billion to nearly 70 billion standard units, which is more than a 30% increase. Eighty percent of antibiotics are used in the community of most nations, whether prescribed by healthcare providers or not, and 20% are used in hospitals and other facilities (Kotwani and Holloway 2011).

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The Journal of the American Medical Association’s new report concludes that doctor’s offices, clinics and emergency rooms in the USA prescribe 30% unnecessary antibiotics.

Rare antibiotic resistant E. coli “superbug” detected for the first time

“The medicine cabinet is empty for some patients,” said Dr. Tom Frieden, director of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “It is the end of the road unless we act urgently.”

Frieden recently signaled a warning sign for the USA when rare mutant Colistin-resistent E. coli was found in a 49-year-old Pennsylvania woman at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Colistin is a last resort antibiotic most physicians use when all other antibiotics don’t work against a bacteria. A similar strain of the antibiotic resistant bacteria was found in a pig intestine by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

There is the danger of a potentially unstoppable superbug being produced if Colistin-resistent E. coli interacts with other bacteria that only respond to Colistin.

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The CDC reports a minimum 2 million cases of infection from other antibiotic resistant bacteria each year and 23,000 consequent deaths to say the least. World Health Organization (WHO) warns about one of the biggest threats to global health due to antibiotic resistance.

10 superbugs which can cause 10 million deaths each year

  1. Gonorrhea  350,000 cases in the USA in 2014, shows resistance to 5 common antibiotics. The sexually transmitted disease now shows resistance to the only two antibiotics left to treat it, i.e. azithromycin and ceftriaxone, according to CDC. There is an overall increase in sexually transmitted diseases in the USA according to a report.
  2. Enterococcus: An ESKAPE pathogen which resists vancomycin antibiotic.
  3. Staphylococcus Aureus: Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes 64% more deaths than its non-resistant form.
  4. Klebsiella: A high level of Carbapenem-resistant bacteria.
  5. Acinetobacter: Commonly infects patients in intensive care unit (ICU) and other healthcare settings.
  6. Pseudomonas: Responsible for around 51,000 healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the USA each year.
  7. E. coli: Now shows resistance to fluoroquinolones, common oral antimicrobial drugs for urinary tract infections (UTIs).
  8. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (TB): India reported total resistance to all TB drugs. 480,000 MDR-TB (multidrug resistant) cases worldwide and XDR-TB (extensively-drug resistant) cases in 100 nations in 2014.
  9. Influenza: Type A and B influenza cause 250,000 to 500,000 deaths and 3 to 5 million cases of serious illness each year.
  10. Typhoid Fever: Affects 21 million worldwide population and causes 222,000 deaths (mostly children) each year.

Your part to playing antibiotic stewardship to avoid antibiotic resistance

Did you know? Antibiotics are prescribed by 95% of doctors in clinics without being absolutely sure if they are really required. Does that blame only the clinicians? Or do you also shoulder some responsibility as an antibiotic consumer? Well, a surveys says antibiotics are misunderstood as effective viral infection treatment by 36% of Americans while another reveals the U.S. as 46% of worldwide antibiotic market.

Take no shortcuts to heal

Right from our ancestors to doctors, they all think “rest” is the best remedy to speed up the healing process or stay fit. But we never take the time to see ourselves out of sickness, which is actually the ideal way. Most of us rely on antibiotics to clear up faster. However, the deal is: pay now in time or later with chronic problems.

Be your own advocate at doctor’s office

1 in 10 doctors would definitely prescribe you an antibiotic. At least of 10% of physicians don’t think it’s a big deal to give antibiotics even if they’re not required. With such scary numbers to tell, you ought to be your own health advocate these days! Ask if your illness is really bacterial, tell them you don’t preferably demand antibiotics, and choose a hospital which practices antibiotic stewardship.

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Use antibacterial cleaning products at minimum

“For routine day in and day out use, at my house I use a nice soap that smells like flowers. That’s fine. You don’t need anything special,” said deputy director Dr. Michael Bell from CDC.

Don’t become obsessed with antibacterial products! Most regular soaps or alcohol-based sanitizers are natural antibiotics and suffice the need to keep you safe from bacteria.

Check the meat you shop at grocery stores

The bacteria on raw meat can be life-threatening. CDC reports approximately 48 million Americans food poisoned every year. Protect yourself and the community by choosing only “antibiotic-free” meats. Avoid cross-contamination of other foods when handling or cooking meat by washing your hands thoroughly during and after preparing food.

Stick to alternatives whenever possible

Sometimes, even chronic or acute infections can be dealt with natural remedies instead of antibiotics, provided you are observed by a skilled herbalist or integrative MD. Viral and bacterial infections also respond to diet change and natural supplements.

Get on Get Smart

It’s a great resource made available by CDC to avoid unnecessary doctor visits or premature consulting, and eventually taking unnecessary antibiotics.

Featured photo credit: Mkcassidy75 via flickr.com

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Last Updated on February 21, 2019

Top 9 Foods for Incredible Brian Health And Brain Power

Top 9 Foods for Incredible Brian Health And Brain Power

Your brain is the most intricate and powerful organ in your entire body. It’s essentially a super-computer with brain power like a Ferrari.

If you have a Ferrari, would you put cheap gasoline in it? Of course not. You want to put in high-octane performance fuel to get the most out of your investment.

When it comes to the brain, many people are looking for the top foods that will supercharge the brainpower to help focus better, think more clearly and have better brain health.

In this article, we’ll look at the top 9 brain foods that will help create supercharge your brain with energy and health:

1. Salmon

Salmon has long been held as a healthy brain food, but what makes this fish so valuable for your brain health?

It’s important to understand that your brain is primarily made up of fat. Roughly 60% of your brain is fat. One of the most important fats that the brain uses as a building block for healthy brain cells is omega-3’s.

Omega-3’s are essential for building a healthy brain but one of the most important omega-3’s for your brain is DHA. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) forms nearly two-thirds of the omega-3’s found in your brain.[1]

Omega-3’s and DHA in particular help form the protective coating around our neurons. The better quality this coating is, the more efficient and effective our brain cells can work, allowing our brain power to work at full capacity.

Studies have shown that being deficient in DHA can affect normal brain development in children, which is why so many infant formulas and children’s supplements are beginning to include DHA.

Being deficient in DHA as an adult can cause focus and attention problems, mood swings, irritability, fatigue and poor sleep.

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2. Blueberries

Blueberries top the list as one of the most beneficial fruits to maximize your brain health and performance.

Blueberries have some of the highest content of antioxidants, particularly anthocyanins, than any other fruit, which helps protect the brain from stress and promote healthy brain aging.

Blueberries antioxidant content also help reduce inflammation, which allows the brain to maintain healthy energy levels.

Blueberries have begun to receive attention for their connection to brain performance.[2] Studies have demonstrated that eating blueberries on a regular basis can not only improve brain health but also brain performance as well including working memory.[3]

Blueberries not only taste great but are low in calories, high in Vitamin C, Vitamin K and Manganese.

3. Turmeric

Turmeric is a very impressive spice that has well-researched and proven to have tremendous benefits for your brain. Turmeric’s main compound that benefits the brain is called curcumin, which is responsible for turmerics bright yellow appearance.

Curcumin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-cancer properties.[4]

Curcumin increases the production and availability of two important neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, two important neurotransmitters involved with happiness, motivation, pleasure, and reward.

Curcumin has been well documented to have powerful anti-depressive effects. In one study, it was found to be as effective for depression as popular medications such as SSRI’s like Prozac.[5]

Curcumin has also been shown to:

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  • Increase blood flow to the brain.[6]
  • Increase BDNF production, a powerful stimulator of neuroplasticity.[7]
  • Increase DHA availability and synthesis in the brain.[8]
  • Increase antioxidant levels in the brain to prevent brain aging and inflammation.[9]

4. Coffee

Coffee is the wonderful elixir of energy that many people cherish every single morning. The biggest reason people drink coffee is to get a dose of caffeine.

Caffeine is a natural neurological stimulant that not only gives you energy but also prevents adenosine, a neurotransmitter involved with feeling tired, from binding in the brain.

Many people are surprised to find that coffee actually contains a large quantity of antioxidants called polyphenols, which are important for reducing inflammation in the brain and keep your brain energized. The antioxidants in coffee also provide a neuroprotective effect, protecting the brain from stress and damage. [R]

Coffee can also:

  • Improve alertness and concentration.[10]
  • Help with neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s disease.[11]
  • Reduce your risk of depression.[12]
  • Improve your memory.
  • Provide short-term boost in athletic performance.[13]

5. Broccoli

What was your least favorite food as a kid growing up?

Most likely, broccoli was your answer.

Broccoli may not have been your top choice, but it might be the top choice for your brain.

Broccoli contains a compound called sulforaphane. Sulforaphane has been shown to promote the proliferation and survival of brain cells by reducing inflammation and boosting production of BDNF. It has also been shown to boost neurogenesis, the production of new brain cells.[14]

Broccoli is also loaded with important nutrients Vitamin K and Folate. Vitamin K plays a vital role in protecting brain cells.[15] Folate plays a crucial role in detoxification and reducing inflammation in the brain.

6. Bone broth

Bone broth wasn’t just created to combine with soups, you can actually drink bone broth by itself.

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Drinking bone broth has become one of the biggest trends in the health and wellness industry and for good reason. Bone broth isn’t actually a new thing. Bone broth has been used for centuries as a healing tonic to promote health and longevity.

Much of the nutritional benefits and value of bone broth comes from its substantial vitamin and mineral content. Primarily calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium.

Your gut is called your second brain for a reason. Research continually shows that there is a direct and indirect connection between your gut and your brain. Your gut also houses and stores many important brain compounds involved with optimal brain performance. Therefore the health of your gut is vitally important for your brain health and performance.

Bone broth has become a go-to tool for helping heal the gut and provide the gut with the vital nutrient and resources it needs to heal and perform optimally.

With the vast amounts of nutrients that bone broth contains, it makes the list as a go-to food for your brain health.

Look for high quality, organic bone broth for the best results.

7. Walnuts

Walnuts are one of the top choices of nuts for brain health. Walnuts also look similar to a brain.

Amongst the wide variety of nuts available, walnuts contain the highest amounts of the important omega-3 DHA. DHA, as seen above, is a critical building block for a healthy brain.

Walnuts also contain high amounts of antioxidants, folate, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus, which help to lower inflammation.

Melatonin in walnuts is an important nutrient for regulating your sleep. Having low amounts of melatonin can make it challenging to get good quality sleep and getting poor quality sleep can dramatically impair brain health and performance.

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8. Eggs

For years, eggs were put on the nutritional naughty list; but now, eggs are finally getting the credit they deserve. Eggs can provide a tremendous boost to your brain health and longevity.

Eggs, particularly the yolks, contain a compound called choline. Choline is essential for building the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine plays an important role in mood, memory, and intelligence.

Egg yolks contain some of the highest quantities of choline. This is very important because low levels of choline can lead to low levels of acetylcholine, which in turn can cause increased inflammation, brain fog, difficulty concentrating and fatigue.

9. Dark chocolate

You’re about to love chocolate even more because chocolate, particularly dark chocolate, is great for your brain.

Chocolate boosts levels of endorphins, your brains “feel good” chemicals. This is why you feel so good eating chocolate.[16]

Chocolate also increases blood flow to the brain which can help improve memory, attention, focus, and reaction time.[17]

Dark chocolate contains high levels of magnesium, which has been coined “natures valium” for its ability to calm and relax the brain.

Lastly, dark chocolate has one of the highest antioxidant profiles out of any other food, including popular superfoods like acai berries, blueberries, or pomegranates.[18]

Conclusion

Your brain is a high performing organ and it uses quite a lot of energy, roughly 20% of the bodies energy demands.

In order to maintain a healthy brain, you need the right fuel to ensure that your brain has all the nutrients it needs to perform as well as adapt to the stress of life.

If you want to keep your brain performing well for a lifetime, then you want to make sure you are including as many of these brain health foods as possible.

More Resources About Boosting Brain Power

Featured photo credit: Unsplash via unsplash.com

Reference

[1] US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health: DHA Effects in Brain Development and Function
[2] Canadian Science Publishing: Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation
[3] US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health: Cognitive effects following acute wild blueberry supplementation in 7- to 10-year-old children.
[4] US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health: Curcumin: the Indian solid gold.
[5] Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. 2nd edition.: Turmeric, the Golden Spice
[6] US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health: Effect of combined treatment with curcumin and candesartan on ischemic brain damage in mice.
[7] Science Direct: Curcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREB
[8] US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health: Curcumin boosts DHA in the brain: Implications for the prevention of anxiety disorders.
[9] PLOS: A Chemical Analog of Curcumin as an Improved Inhibitor of Amyloid Abeta Oligomerization
[10] US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health: Effects of Caffeine on Cognitive Performance, Mood, and Alertness in Sleep-Deprived Humans
[11] American Academy of Neurology: A Cup of Joe May Help Some Parkinson’s Disease Symptoms
[12] American Academy of Neurology: AAN 65th Annual Meeting Abstract
[13] US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health: Effects of caffeine on the metabolic and catecholamine responses to exercise in 5 and 28 degrees C.
[14] US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health: Hyperammonemia induces glial activation, neuroinflammation and alters neurotransmitter receptors in hippocampus, impairing spatial learning: reversal by sulforaphane
[15] Oxford Academic: Vitamin K and the Nervous System: An Overview of its Actions
[16] Diana L. Walcutt, Ph.D: Chocolate and Mood Disorders
[17] Health Magazine: Chocolate can do good things for your heart, skin and brain
[18] Chemistry Central Journal: Cacao seeds are a “Super Fruit”: A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

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