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Is Antibiotic Abuse Murdering Our Future & Your Part to Playing Antibiotic Stewardship

Is Antibiotic Abuse Murdering Our Future & Your Part to Playing Antibiotic Stewardship

Modern medicine has given us antibiotics, our go-to-first line of defense. They are not for viruses like common cold or a flu but when you are down with something serious like pneumonia, bronchitis, etc, there is a need for something serious; something potent to kill of the bacteria and get well.

The problem is that bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics, making the antibiotics that you readily get from your doctor less effective. Antibiotic resistance occurs when targeted bacteria show resistance to an antibiotic, continuing to thrive and multiply, even in the presence of an antibiotic’s therapeutic levels.

What is selective pressure in antibiotic resistance?

Selective pressure is an antibiotic influence on natural selection where susceptible bacteria, or those having low chance of survival, are killed or inhibited by the antibiotic while the resistant strains of bacteria are allowed to survive. However, sometimes, the natural selection to promote resistance to antibiotics is influenced at a low level without human action – bacteria have the ability to produce and use antibiotics against other bacteria.

Nonetheless, today’s higher level of antibiotic resistance is solely due to antibiotic abuse or overuse. It’s common in some countries to purchase antibiotics over the counter or take unnecessary dosages to treat viral illnesses, such as the common cold.

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A matter of concern

Whether it is about protecting people from different classes of bacteria or saving countless number of lives since the first antibiotic (penicillin) was clinically used in the 1940s, antibiotics have a significant attribution in the human health history. However, their efficacy has become vulnerable, giving rise to drug-resistant bacteria.

Much of the effectiveness of antibiotics is threatened in the modern food animal industry by the use of low doses of antimicrobials for faster growth of livestock and poultry animals, and to compensate for unhygienic environments they are raised in. This encourages bacteria to resist drugs, and such drug-resistant bacteria come in contact with the general public, either through food, animal or human carriers.

1 death every 3 seconds all around the world

This is a dangerous statistic which will soon become a reality by 2050 if countries don’t take immediate action to control antibiotic resistance. ResistanceMap, a highly visual and interactive online platform, shows the current trends in antibiotic resistance around the globe, including the USA, Europe, and low & middle income countries (LMICs):

  • USA: 2 million serious illnesses, 23,000 deaths, $20 billion additional annual medical costs
  • Europe: 25,000 deaths, €1.5 billion direct and indirect annual costs (EMA and ECDC 2009)
  • India: 58,000 neonatal sepsis deaths (Laxminarayan et al. 2013)
  • Tanzania and Mozambique: Increasing deaths of neonates and children under 5 (Kayange et al. 2010; Roca et al. 2008)
  • Worldwide: 935,000 deaths of children under 5 due to pneumonia (2013)

The 2000-10 data of 71 countries reveals that global antibiotic consumption has grown from 50 billion to nearly 70 billion standard units, which is more than a 30% increase. Eighty percent of antibiotics are used in the community of most nations, whether prescribed by healthcare providers or not, and 20% are used in hospitals and other facilities (Kotwani and Holloway 2011).

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The Journal of the American Medical Association’s new report concludes that doctor’s offices, clinics and emergency rooms in the USA prescribe 30% unnecessary antibiotics.

Rare antibiotic resistant E. coli “superbug” detected for the first time

“The medicine cabinet is empty for some patients,” said Dr. Tom Frieden, director of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “It is the end of the road unless we act urgently.”

Frieden recently signaled a warning sign for the USA when rare mutant Colistin-resistent E. coli was found in a 49-year-old Pennsylvania woman at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Colistin is a last resort antibiotic most physicians use when all other antibiotics don’t work against a bacteria. A similar strain of the antibiotic resistant bacteria was found in a pig intestine by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

There is the danger of a potentially unstoppable superbug being produced if Colistin-resistent E. coli interacts with other bacteria that only respond to Colistin.

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The CDC reports a minimum 2 million cases of infection from other antibiotic resistant bacteria each year and 23,000 consequent deaths to say the least. World Health Organization (WHO) warns about one of the biggest threats to global health due to antibiotic resistance.

10 superbugs which can cause 10 million deaths each year

  1. Gonorrhea  350,000 cases in the USA in 2014, shows resistance to 5 common antibiotics. The sexually transmitted disease now shows resistance to the only two antibiotics left to treat it, i.e. azithromycin and ceftriaxone, according to CDC. There is an overall increase in sexually transmitted diseases in the USA according to a report.
  2. Enterococcus: An ESKAPE pathogen which resists vancomycin antibiotic.
  3. Staphylococcus Aureus: Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes 64% more deaths than its non-resistant form.
  4. Klebsiella: A high level of Carbapenem-resistant bacteria.
  5. Acinetobacter: Commonly infects patients in intensive care unit (ICU) and other healthcare settings.
  6. Pseudomonas: Responsible for around 51,000 healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the USA each year.
  7. E. coli: Now shows resistance to fluoroquinolones, common oral antimicrobial drugs for urinary tract infections (UTIs).
  8. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (TB): India reported total resistance to all TB drugs. 480,000 MDR-TB (multidrug resistant) cases worldwide and XDR-TB (extensively-drug resistant) cases in 100 nations in 2014.
  9. Influenza: Type A and B influenza cause 250,000 to 500,000 deaths and 3 to 5 million cases of serious illness each year.
  10. Typhoid Fever: Affects 21 million worldwide population and causes 222,000 deaths (mostly children) each year.

Your part to playing antibiotic stewardship to avoid antibiotic resistance

Did you know? Antibiotics are prescribed by 95% of doctors in clinics without being absolutely sure if they are really required. Does that blame only the clinicians? Or do you also shoulder some responsibility as an antibiotic consumer? Well, a surveys says antibiotics are misunderstood as effective viral infection treatment by 36% of Americans while another reveals the U.S. as 46% of worldwide antibiotic market.

Take no shortcuts to heal

Right from our ancestors to doctors, they all think “rest” is the best remedy to speed up the healing process or stay fit. But we never take the time to see ourselves out of sickness, which is actually the ideal way. Most of us rely on antibiotics to clear up faster. However, the deal is: pay now in time or later with chronic problems.

Be your own advocate at doctor’s office

1 in 10 doctors would definitely prescribe you an antibiotic. At least of 10% of physicians don’t think it’s a big deal to give antibiotics even if they’re not required. With such scary numbers to tell, you ought to be your own health advocate these days! Ask if your illness is really bacterial, tell them you don’t preferably demand antibiotics, and choose a hospital which practices antibiotic stewardship.

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Use antibacterial cleaning products at minimum

“For routine day in and day out use, at my house I use a nice soap that smells like flowers. That’s fine. You don’t need anything special,” said deputy director Dr. Michael Bell from CDC.

Don’t become obsessed with antibacterial products! Most regular soaps or alcohol-based sanitizers are natural antibiotics and suffice the need to keep you safe from bacteria.

Check the meat you shop at grocery stores

The bacteria on raw meat can be life-threatening. CDC reports approximately 48 million Americans food poisoned every year. Protect yourself and the community by choosing only “antibiotic-free” meats. Avoid cross-contamination of other foods when handling or cooking meat by washing your hands thoroughly during and after preparing food.

Stick to alternatives whenever possible

Sometimes, even chronic or acute infections can be dealt with natural remedies instead of antibiotics, provided you are observed by a skilled herbalist or integrative MD. Viral and bacterial infections also respond to diet change and natural supplements.

Get on Get Smart

It’s a great resource made available by CDC to avoid unnecessary doctor visits or premature consulting, and eventually taking unnecessary antibiotics.

Featured photo credit: Mkcassidy75 via flickr.com

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Last Updated on August 15, 2018

7 Amazing Things That Will Happen When You Do Plank Every Day

7 Amazing Things That Will Happen When You Do Plank Every Day

Bodyweight exercises are gaining ground in the fitness world due to the practicality and simplicity of getting in shape using your own body weight. Planks are one form of bodyweight exercises that will never go out of fashion. Planks are one of the most effective exercises you can do. Why? Because they require a small time investment on your part, and offer the chance to achieve substantial results in a relatively short span of time.

Video Summary

Why is it important to train up our core strength?

There are numerous sites and blogs which detail ways to build your core muscles or core strength. Often though, these sites neglect to explain what your core muscles actually are, and why building them is important.

This is quite surprising, as core muscles are quite easy to explain. Your core muscles are a series of muscles in your midsection, and are used in most forms of movement. Though they aren’t housed in your arms or legs, your core muscles can help transfer force from one limb to another, or are used in addition to muscles in your arms or legs to increase their effectiveness. As such a strong core will make a big improvement on your ability to move and exercise further.

Also they are great for helping other muscles in your midsection such as your abdominal muscles. Your abdominal muscles are important for supporting your back and spinal column, and as such are important aids in preventing injuries. However for them to be most effective you need to spend a lot of time developing your core muscles.

In short, planking exercises can make a huge improvement in your muscles down your whole body. Making them a hugely effective exercise to perform.

One Exercise, multiple benefits

There are few forms of exercise as effective at building your core as planking exercises. However, planking exercises benefit far more than just your core strength.

By holding yourself in the position for a planking exercise, you’ll notice that your biceps, neck, and shoulder muscles are also being tested and strained. This this encouraging their buildup and development. This is great news if you like to do press ups, developed shoulder muscles will have a big impact on your press up performance.

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When planking, you are holding yourself up through your arms and biceps and so by holding a planking position, your arm muscles are being toned and developed. Making planking a great alternative exercise to other forms of bicep developing exercises.

Moving down your midsection, successful plank exercises actually develop the muscles in your butt! These muscles tend to be ignored by a lot of exercises, so this is another great benefit of plank exercises.

In much the same way as you develop your biceps and arm muscles, holding the planking position helps develop the muscles in your thighs too.

What is even better is that planking exercises don’t take much time at all. In fact you should probably only spend about ten minutes max per day in the planking exercise.

What will happen when you start doing planks every day

    1. You’ll improve core definition and performance: 

    Planks are an ideal exercise for the abdominal muscles exactly because they engage all major core muscle groups including the transverse abdominus, the rectus abdominusthe external oblique muscle, and the glutes. The importance of strengthening each muscle group cannot be underestimated either, for all of these groups serve their own purpose. If you strengthen these muscle groups you will notice:

    • Transverse abdominis: increased ability to lift heavier weights.
    • Rectus adbominis: improved sports performance, particularly with jumping. This muscle group is also responsible for giving you the renowned six pack look.
    • Oblique muscles: improved capacity for stable side-bending and waist-twisting
    • Glutes: a supported back and a strong, shapely booty.

    2. You’ll decrease your risk of injury in the back and spinal column

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      Doing planks is a type of exercise that allow you to build muscle while also making sure that you are not putting too much pressure on your spine or hips. According to the American Council on Exercise, doing planks regularly not only significantly reduces back pain but it also strengthens your muscles and ensures a strong support for your entire back, especially in the areas around your upper back.

      Check out this article if you would like to find out about how doing planks on different surfaces can impact the effectiveness of this exercise in strengthening your core.

      3. You’ll experience an increased boost to your overall metabolism

        Planking is an excellent way of challenging your entire body because doing them every day will burn more calories than other traditional abdominal exercises, such as crunches or sit-ups. The muscles you strengthen by doing this exercise on a day-to-day basis will ensure that you burn more energy even when sedentary. This is especially important if you are spending the majority of your day sitting in front of a computer. Also, making it a daily 10- to 1 minute home exercise before or after work will not only provide an enhanced metabolic rate but it will also ensure that that metabolic rate remains high all day long, (yes, even while you are asleep).

        4. You’ll significantly improve your posture

          Planking exercises have a great impact and improvement on your posture. This is great news as a strong posture brings with it a huge number of fantastic benefits .

          A good posture keeps your bones and joins in the correct alignment which means both your bones and joints will be better maintained and more healthy, but also means the overall effectiveness of your muscles will be improved.

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          A good posture will ensure your back or spine is in the correct position and so you will suffer less back pain.

          On top of everything, someone with good posture looks better, healthier, and more confident.

          5. You’ll improve overall balance

            Have you ever felt that when you tried standing on one leg, you couldn’t stand up straight for more than a couple of seconds? It’s not because you were drunk- unless you happened to be at the time!-  but rather, it’s because your abdominal muscles weren’t strong enough to give you the balance you needed. Through improving your balance by doing side planks and planks with extensions you will boost your performance in every kind of sporting activity.

            6. You’ll become more flexible than ever before

              Flexibility is a key benefit of doing planks regularly, for this form of exercise expands and stretches all your posterior muscle groups – shouldersshoulder blades, and collarbone – while also stretching your hamstrings, arches of your feet, and toes. With a side plank added in to the mix, you can also work on your oblique muscles. This will provide you with further benefits when it comes to hyper-extending your toes, a movement that is crucial for supporting your body’s weight.

              7. You’ll witness mental benefits

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                Plank exercises have a particular effect on our nerves, making them an excellent means of improving overall mood. How? Well, they stretch out muscle groups that contribute to stress and tension in the body. Just think about it: you are sitting in your chair, at home or at work, all day long; your thigh muscles get tight, your legs get heavy due to being bent for several hours; and tension develops in your shoulders due to being forced to slump forward all day. These are all circumstances that put too stress on the muscles and nerves. The good news is that planks not only calm your brain, but they can also treat anxiety and symptoms of depression– but only if you make it part of your daily routine.

                How to hold a plank position

                1. Get into pushup position on the floor.
                2. Now bend your elbows 90 degrees and rest your weight on your forearms.
                3. Keep your torso straight and rigid and your body in a straight line from ears to toes with no sagging or bending.
                4. Your head is relaxed and you should be looking at the floor.
                5. Hold the position for as long as you can.
                6. Remember to breathe. Inhale and exhale slowly and steadily.
                7. When your form begins to suffer, pull the plug. You’re only benefiting from the plank by actually doing the plank.

                Watch the video if you have any doubt!

                Here is a great infographic that shows the best plank variation exercises to evenly target all abdominal muscle groups:

                  How to improve your plank time gradually

                  1. Start with the easier variation if needed. You can start with a bent-knee plank if you can’t perform a regular plank yet. If you can hold a plank for more than two minutes with ease, you can move on to these tougher variations.
                  2. Practise every day. Space your planking exercise throughout the day and do 3-4 times every day. Try to hold the position 10 seconds longer each time.
                  3. Perform other body-weight exercises at the same time. Push-up and squat will improve your core strength too.

                  Are you ready to devote 5-10 minutes of your day, every day, to stay fit, healthy and, most importantly, strong as a bull? Then jump in and make doing plank exercises a part of your life.

                  Who Should Be Cautious Doing The Plank?

                  You need to be cautious doing Planking exercises if any of these risks apply to you:

                  • Prolapse
                  • After prolapse surgery
                  • Pelvic pain conditions
                  • Weak or poorly functioning pelvic floor muscles
                  • Previous childbirth
                  • Overweight

                  Choose an alternative pelvic floor abdominal exercise or consult your doctor before performing plank regularly.

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