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Research Says That E-cigarettes May Be Linked To Lung Disease

Research Says That E-cigarettes May Be Linked To Lung Disease

Did you know that the sales of e-cigarettes among teens doubled in the period between 2011 and 2012? There are now 4 million Americans who use these. But the big question that everybody is asking about this billion-dollar craze is whether these new cigarettes are really safer and healthier than old-fashioned tobacco cigarettes.

The main problem is that there has been very little research and, of course, it is probably far too soon to assess the longterm health risks. But there is one alarming fact that cannot be brushed under the carpet in spite of all the hype. It is this: these cigarettes contain nicotine and flavored chemicals — no less than 7,000 flavors have been developed!

Harmful chemicals may damage the lungs

One of these chemicals is called diacetyl and it has been found in almost 75% of the e-cigarettes studied by the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. They found that this chemical caused bronchial and other lung diseases in workers who were making popcorn with a vanilla flavour which contained it. This condition is called “popcorn lung” because these workers were inhaling it as they made the popcorn.

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When you use these cigarettes, there is no smoke because the battery does all the heating — there is no need for combustion. There is only “vaping,” that is, you are producing vapor as you inhale and exhale. Sounds pretty harmless but the whole process and the use of chemicals is worrying some doctors.

Why e-cigarettes may be harmful

Although there seems to be enough evidence to show that the lack of smoke produces fewer harmful chemicals than normal cigarettes, doubts remain.

What actually goes into the e-cigarettes seems to vary enormously. After all, there are 250 brands already on the market! The most alarming fact is that e-cigarettes remain unregulated and that means there is no guarantee at all in regards to their purity and safety. In addition, nobody knows what the longterm effects of the vapor may be.

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“As for long-term effects, we don’t know what happens when you breathe the vapor into the lungs regularly.” — Thomas Glynn, Director of Science at the American Cancer Society.

The harmful effects of nicotine

Normal cigarette smoking causes about 400,000 deaths in America annually. The burning of tobacco means the smoker is inhaling tar and other toxic chemicals which can lead to heart disease and cancer. Now, the number of chemicals in e-cigarettes is infinitely smaller (9 versus 11,000 according to the FDA), so that would suggest they are indeed much safer. But the nicotine is still in there and that leads to addiction, just as with normal cigarettes. It is so addictive that you can get withdrawal symptoms which can lead to depression and anxiety. The nicotine can also damage the heart and arteries in the long term.

Other harmful chemicals in the mix

The nicotine dose is mixed with propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine. While these are not officially carcinogens, they are believed to be “potentially carcinogenic,” as described in a French report on e-cigarettes. The French government is thinking of introducing a public ban on smoking these devices, including limiting their use to adults only. They are concerned about the health effects and the side stream smoke for those unlucky enough to be near someone who is vaping.

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Up to 42 chemicals have been identified in e-cigarettes. You can see the full list here. They include some rather notorious chemicals which we spend a lot of time avoiding because they are toxic and they may lead to cancer. This includes benzene, lead, nickel, toluene, and formaldehyde.

“In addition to containing varying levels of the addictive substance nicotine, they also contain other cancer-causing chemicals, such as formaldehyde, and as our study shows, flavoring chemicals that can cause lung damage.” — David Christiani, Elkan Blout Professor of Environmental Genetics and co-author of the Harvard study.

When e-cigarettes hit the scene, they were regarded as harmless gadgets and a safer option to smoking. This is only partially true, as we have seen above, and their use should be better controlled for the sake of all our lungs.

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Featured photo credit: Vaping vs Smoking/ Vaping360 via flickr.com

More by this author

Robert Locke

Author of Ziger the Tiger Stories, a health enthusiast specializing in relationships, life improvement and mental health.

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Last Updated on July 10, 2020

How to Take Control of Your Life with Better Boundaries

How to Take Control of Your Life with Better Boundaries

We all have them—those hurtful, frustrating, offensive, manipulative people in our lives. No matter how hard we try to surround ourselves with positive and kind people, there will always be those who will disrespect, insult, berate, and misuse you if we allow them to.

We may, for a variety of reasons, not be able to avoid them, but we can determine how we interact with them and how we allow them to interact with us.

So, how to take control of your life and stop being pushed around?

Learning to set clear firm boundaries with the people in our lives at work and in our personal lives is the best way to protect ourselves from the negative effects of this kind of behavior.

What Boundaries Are (And What They’re Not)

Boundaries are limits

—they are not threats or ultimatums. Boundaries inform or teach. They are not a form of punishment.

Boundaries are firm lines—determined by you—which cannot be crossed by those around you. They are guidelines for how you will allow others to treat you and what kind of behaviors you will expect.

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Healthy personal boundaries help protect you from physical or emotional pain. You may also need to set firm boundaries at work to ensure you and your time are not disrespected. Don’t allow others to take advantage of your kindness and generosity.

Clear boundaries communicate to others that you demand respect and consideration—that you are willing to stand up for yourself and that you will not be a doormat for anyone. They are a “no trespassing” sign that makes it very clear when a line has been crossed and that there will be consequences for doing so.

Boundaries are not set with the intention of changing other people. They may change how people interact with you, but they are more about enforcing your needs than attempting to change the general behavior and attitude of others.

How to Establish Boundaries and Take Control of Your Life

Here are some ways that you can establish boundaries and take control of your life.

1. Self-Awareness Comes First

Before you can establish boundaries with others, you first need to understand what your needs are.

You are entitled to respect. You have the right to protect yourself from inappropriate or offensive behavior. Setting boundaries is a way of honoring your needs.

To set appropriate boundaries, you need to be clear about what healthy behaviors look like—what healthy relationships look like.

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You first have to become more aware of your feelings and honest with yourself about your expectations and what you feel is appropriate behavior:

  • Where do you need to establish better boundaries?
  • When do you feel disrespected?
  • When do you feel violated, frustrated, or angered by the behavior of others?
  • In what situations do you feel you are being mistreated or taken advantage of?
  • When do you want to be alone?
  • How much space do you need?

You need to honor your own needs and boundaries before you can expect others to honor them. This allows you to take control of your life.

2. Clear Communication Is Essential

Inform others clearly and directly what your expectations are. It is essential to have clear communication if you want others to respect your boundaries. Explain in an honest and respectful tone what you find offensive or unacceptable.

Many people simply aren’t aware that they are behaving inappropriately. They may never have been taught proper manners or consideration for others.

3. Be Specific but Don’t Blame

Taking a blaming or punishing attitude automatically puts people on the defensive. People will not listen when they feel attacked. It’s part of human nature.

That said, you do not need to overexplain or defend yourself. Boundaries are not open to compromise.

Sample language:

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  • “You may not…yell or raise your voice to me…”
  • “I need…to be treated with respect…”
  • “It’s not okay when…you take things from my desk without asking…”
  • “I won’t…do your work…cover for you anymore…”
  • “It’s not acceptable when…you ridicule or insult me…”
  • “I am uncomfortable when…you use offensive language”
  • “I will no longer be able to…lend you money…”

Being able to communicate these without sounding accusatory is essential if you want others to respect your boundaries so you can take control of your life.

4. Consequences Are Often Necessary

Determine what the appropriate consequences will be when boundaries are crossed. If it’s appropriate, be clear about those consequences upfront when communicating those boundaries to others.

Follow through. People won’t respect your boundaries if you don’t enforce them.

Standing our ground and forcing consequences doesn’t come easily to us. We want to be nice. We want people to like us, but we shouldn’t have to trade our self-respect to gain friends or to achieve success.

We may be tempted to let minor disrespect slide to avoid conflict, but as the familiar saying goes, “if you give people an inch, they’ll take a mile.”

It’s much easier to address offensive or inappropriate behavior now than to wait until that behavior has gotten completely out of hand.

It’s also important to remember that positive reinforcement is even more powerful than negative consequences. When people do alter the way they treat you, acknowledge it. Let people know that you notice and appreciate their efforts.

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Final Thoughts

Respect is always a valid reason for setting a boundary. Don’t defend yourself or your needs. Boundaries are often necessary to protect your time, your space, and your feelings. And these are essential if you want to take control of your life.

Start with the easiest boundaries first. Setting boundaries is a skill that needs to be practiced. Enlist support from others if necessary. Inform people immediately when they have crossed the line.

Don’t wait. Communicate politely and directly. Be clear about the consequences and follow them through.

The better you become at setting your own boundaries, the better you become at recognizing and respecting the boundaries of others.

Remember that establishing boundaries is your right. You are entitled to respect. You can’t control how other people behave, but you do have control over the way you allow people to treat you.

Learning to set boundaries is not always easy, but with time, it will become more comfortable. You may eventually find that boundaries become automatic and you no longer need to consciously set them.

They will simply become a natural extension of your self-respect.

Featured photo credit: Thomas Kelley via unsplash.com

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