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Scientists Discover Why It Is Necessary For Our Brains To Forget What We Learn

Scientists Discover Why It Is Necessary For Our Brains To Forget What We Learn

Ever wonder why you forget things and remember others? What if I told you that just as your brain has certain signals for how to remember things, it also has certain signals to tell it what to forge? This information, coming from Lund University in Sweden has been supported by some compelling research. There are several reasons why your brain may forget information but it boils down to a simple concept — when you brain has one stimulus it tends to remember the information associated with this stimulus. In cases with multiple stimuli, you may forget because your brain does not know what to “assign” the association to. This information can change the way you learn and update the way teachers educate their students.

Examples of Mechanisms to Help Learn

After looking at the research conducted from Lund University, I realized it began a little bit like Pavlov’s study where he conditioned his dogs to salivate at the anticipation of food. At Lund University, they wanted to see if animals could learn to associate a certain tone or light pattern to a puff of air blown into their eye. The air buff in their eye causes the reaction of a blink. Therefore, eventually the tone or the light would make the animal or human blink before the puff had even been triggered. They found much like Pavlov’s dogs, this did work. When either the light or the tone was played the conditioning took affect and the subjects blinked as expected.

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The Twist

The scientists then did something a little different with the study. Instead of having one stimulus, they decided to have a tone and the light signal at the same time. Some would think that this would reinforce the conditioning now that there were two things “warning” of the impending air puff. The result was somewhat surprising. Amazingly, the subjects were less likely to react to the two stimuli put together. The results got worse instead of better when there were two “warnings” given to the subjects.

As explained by one of the Swedish brain researchers: “Two stimuli therefore achieve worse results than just one. It seems contrary to common sense, but we believe that the reason for it is that the brain wants to save energy.”

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The “Energy-Saving Brain”

Maintaining the pathways through the brain for both the tone and the light takes more energy than only having one. It is believed therefore that the brain temporarily lets go of the information. Basically, when two pathways are developed the pathways put on the brakes in the brain. It’s like an “I thought you were going to take care of it.” “No, I thought you had this” type of conversation between the two pathways that result in freezing up.

The Lund researchers were able to show how nerve cells learn and forget through animals, but think humans should probably be the same. The two stimuli simultaneously activate neurons which stop the activity.

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What Does This Mean in Practical Use?

In practical use, this information could help teachers to learn how best to present information, so they aren’t accidentally shutting off learning mechanisms while teaching. Students might find this information very valuable. Knowing how to best study and retain information would be valuable. If scientist can figure out how the pathways are shut off by stimuli or outside things, than it’s reasonable to assume that they can find what turns them on. Imagine being able to attend school and knowing exactly what will make the information stick! The potential impact of this information is significant!

This information and more is available here.

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Featured photo credit: Ollyy via shutterstock.com

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Last Updated on February 21, 2019

The Secret to Effective Conflict Resolution: The IBR Approach

The Secret to Effective Conflict Resolution: The IBR Approach

In business, in social relationships, in family… In whatever context conflict is always inevitable, especially when you are in the leader role. This role equals “make decisions for the best of majority” and the remaining are not amused. Conflicts arise.

Conflicts arise when we want to push for a better quality work but some members want to take a break from work.

Conflicts arise when we as citizens want more recreational facilities but the Government has to balance the needs to maintain tourism growth.

Conflicts are literally everywhere.

Avoiding Conflicts a No-No and Resolving Conflicts a Win-Win

Avoiding conflicts seem to be a viable option for us. The cruel fact is, it isn’t. Conflicts won’t walk away by themselves. They will, instead, escalate and haunt you back even more when we finally realize that’s no way we can let it be.

Moreover, avoiding conflicts will eventually intensify the misunderstanding among the involved parties. And the misunderstanding severely hinders open communication which later on the parties tend to keep things secret. This is obviously detrimental to teamwork.

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Some may view conflicts as the last step before arguments. And they thus leave it aside as if they never happen. This is not true.

Conflicts are the intersect point between different individuals with different opinions. And this does not necessarily lead to argument.

Instead, proper handling of conflicts can actually result in a win-win situation – both parties are pleased and allies are gained. A better understanding between each other and future conflicts are less likely to happen.

The IBR Approach to Resolve Conflicts

Here, we introduce to you an effective approach to resolve conflicts – the Interest-Based Relational (IBR) approach. The IBR approach was developed by Roger Fisher and William Ury in their 1981 book Getting to Yes. It stresses the importance of the separation between people and their emotions from the problem. Another focus of the approach is to build mutual understanding and respect as they strengthen bonds among parties and can ultimately help resolve conflicts in a harmonious way. The approach suggests a 6-step procedure for conflict resolution:

Step 1: Prioritize Good Relationships

How? Before addressing the problem or even starting the discussion, make it clear the conflict can result in a mutual trouble and through subsequent respectful negotiation the conflict can be resolved peacefully. And that brings the best outcome to the whole team by working together.

Why? It is easy to overlook own cause of the conflict and point the finger to the members with different opinions. With such a mindset, it is likely to blame rather than to listen to the others and fail to acknowledge the problem completely. Such a discussion manner will undermine the good relationships among the members and aggravate the problem.

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Example: Before discussion, stress that the problem is never one’s complete fault. Everyone is responsible for it. Then, it is important to point out our own involvement in the problem and state clearly we are here to listen to everyone’s opinions rather than accusing others.

Step 2: People Are NOT the Cause of Problem

How? State clearly the problem is never one-sided. Collaborative effort is needed. More importantly, note the problem should not be taken personally. We are not making accusations on persons but addressing the problem itself.

Why? Once things taken personally, everything will go out of control. People will become irrational and neglect others’ opinions. We are then unable to address the problem properly because we cannot grasp a fuller and clearer picture of the problem due to presumption.

Example: In spite of the confronting opinions, we have to emphasize that the problem is not a result of the persons but probably the different perspectives to view it. So, if we try to look at the problem from the other’s perspective, we may understand why there are varied opinions.

Step 3: Listen From ALL Stances

How? Do NOT blame others. It is of utmost importance. Ask for everyone’s opinions. It is important to let everyone feel that they contribute to the discussion. Tell them their involvement is essential to solve the problem and their effort is very much appreciated.

Why? None wants to be ignored. If one feels neglected, it is very likely for he/she to be aggressive. It is definitely not what we hope to see in a discussion. Acknowledging and being acknowledged are equally important. So, make sure everyone has equal opportunity to express their views. Also, realizing their opinions are not neglected, they will be more receptive to other opinions.

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Example: A little trick can played here: Invite others to talk first. It is an easy way to let others feel involved and ,more importantly, know their voices are heard. Also, we can show that we are actively listening to them by giving direct eye-contact and nodding. One important to note is that never interrupt anyone. Always let them finish first beforeanother one begins.

Step 4: Listen Comes First, Talk Follows

How? Ensure everyone has listened to one another points of view. It can be done by taking turn to speak and leaving the discussion part at last. State once again the problem is nothing personal and no accusation should be made.

Why? By turn-taking, everyone can finish talking and voices of all sides can be heard indiscriminantly. This can promote willingness to listen to opposing opinions.

Example: We can prepare pieces of paper with different numbers written on them. Then, ask different members to pick one and talk according to the sequence of the number. After everyone’s finished, advise everyone to use “I” more than “You” in the discussion period to avoid others thinking that it is an accusation.

Step 5: Understand the Facts, Then Address the Problem

How? List out ALL the facts first. Ask everyone to tell what they know about the problems.

Why? Sometimes your facts are unknown to the others while they may know something we don’t. Missing out on these facts could possibly lead to inaccurate capture of the problem. Also, different known facts can lead to different perception of the matter. It also helps everyone better understand the problem and can eventually help reach a solution.

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Example: While everyone is expressing their own views, ask them to write down everything they know that is true to the problem. As soon as everyone has finished, all facts can be noted and everyone’s understanding of the problem is raised.

Step 6: Solve the Problem Together

How? Knowing what everyone’s thinking, it is now time to resolve the conflict. Up to this point, everyone should have understood the problem better. So, it is everyone’s time to suggest some solutions. It is important not to have one giving all the solutions.

Why? Having everyone suggesting their solutions is important as they will not feel excluded and their opinions are considered. Besides, it may also generate more solutions that can better resolve the conflicts. Everyone will more likely be satisfied with the result.

Example: After discussion, ask all members to suggest any possible solutions and stress that all solutions are welcomed. State clearly that we are looking for the best outcomes for everyone’s sake rather than battling to win over one another. Then, evaluate all the solutions and pick the one that is in favor of everyone.

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