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What Will Happen To Your Body When You Stop Exercising

What Will Happen To Your Body When You Stop Exercising

Engaging in regular exercise improves your overall health, mobility and stamina. It leads to much better consumption of vitamins, minerals, other nutrient substances as well as oxygen in your body. However, in spite of your best efforts, you will eventually miss a workout. And from that point it gets easier and easier to not exercise. Soon you’re not working out at all. If consistent exercise is so beneficial for your health, what happens when you skip a few sessions, take a protracted workout cessation, or when you just stop exercising?

Shortly after you begin detraining (discontinuing your normal exercise sequence), noticeable changes begin to occur in your body based upon your level of fitness. The lack of exercise influences how you look, feel and represent yourself. It hastens the aging process. Your cardiovascular health, muscular structure, brain function, emotions and concentration can be impacted. You develop an elevated risk for chronic illness.

Dr. Harry Pino, Personal Trainer and Rehabilitation Specialist, Exercise Physiologist, Consultant and experienced marathoner, is quoted heavily by many on the subject of detraining. Most of the references come from an August 2015 post by George Dvorsky, io9 blog. In this article, Dr. Pino states that “It’s shocking to see what happens to the body. We start to see lots of changes to muscle, strength, and fat levels—it really deteriorates your structural well-being[…] The fitter you are, the harder you fall.” The better conditioned you are, the faster you lose your well-earned fitness position.

Fitness levels for athletic people decline at varying rates based upon whether strength or cardiovascular losses are at risk. According to Andreas Bergdahl, Assistant Professor, Cardiovascular Physiology at Montreal’s Concordia University, “…what applies to an elite athlete after one week, might take a sedentary individual one or two months to experience.” The precise extent you will lose your fitness depends upon how long you are in the detraining phase and where you are on the fitness bar.

The good part is that no matter the cause for your falling off of the workout wagon – laziness, exhaustion, illness, conflict in schedules, injury, etc. – these conditions can most likely be reversed if you resume your exercise routines and healthy living. And as a reminder of your need to choose daily activity, here follows a detailed summary of what research finds will happen to your body when you stop exercising.

Loss of Cardio Conditioning

Cardio conditioning, or Cardio for short, is a type of exercise for heightened cardiovascular health. When you stop exercising for a few weeks you fail to strengthen your heart and lungs which casts you into a serious sedentary lifestyle. This time of ease causes your cardio to weaken and your body to store additional fat. Have you noticed challenges when you run up the steps, chase the cat or walk a short block? Cardio conditioning falls quicker than your muscle strength; however, it’s a lot easier to regain.

A four week study of nine well-trained endurance athletes on the Effects of detraining on endurance capacity and metabolic changes during prolonged exhaustive exercise concluded that four weeks of inactivity resulted in a 21% decrease of their VO2 max – their maximum capacity to take in, transport, and use oxygen during exercise. It, also, determined that endurance capacity fluctuates substantially during detraining without changes in the VO2 max. Muscle values increased significantly at exhaustion in the detrained state. The elevated muscle at exhaustion could contribute to fatigue in prolonged exercise.

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In a study of Time course of loss of adaptations after stopping prolonged intense endurance training, the VO2 max declined 7% during the first 21 days of inactivity and stabilized after 56 days at a level 16% below the initial trained value. After 84 days of detraining the experimental subjects still had a higher VO2 max than did eight sedentary control subjects who had never trained. Enzymes in the blood associated with endurance performance decreased by 50 percent. Curtly terminating your regular exercise routine harms your blood flow and your heart.

In cardio conditioning, your heart muscle is made stronger. You have a lower resting heart rate, and a healthier lung function. These benefits enable you to work harder for longer periods of time, with increased vigor and durability. Also, you may notice less stress and better temperaments.  You forfeit these advantages when you stop exercising.

Higher Blood Pressure

For the majority of persons that workout, consistent exercise assists with the lowering of their blood pressure. Therefore, it’s a no brainer that when we stop exercising it raises our blood pressure. Despite the general consensus of this claim, there exists significant inconsistency relative to the matter. This is seen in a study on The Relationship between the Blood Pressure Responses to Exercise following Training and Detraining Periods.

It examined the relationship between blood pressure responses after 6 months of training, followed by 2 weeks of detraining. Test specimen consisted of sedentary, middle-aged obese men (38) and women (37) with prehypertension, mild to moderate dyslipidemia (an abnormal amount of lipids, or fats, in the blood), and normal fasting glucose. Test results revealed “considerable variability” in the blood pressure responses; negative correlations were discovered.

Some of the individuals responded and others did not respond to exercise as a means of controlling high blood pressure. Although results indicated that exercise training lowers blood pressure, while blood pressure increases and returns to pre-training values with detraining; several of the study subjects experienced contrary results. They registered increased blood pressure with exercise training; they registered decreased blood pressure after detraining. Obviously this phenomenon requires further study.

Your Blood Glucose Skyrockets

Sedentary living causes your glucose levels to rise. This increases your risk of contracting heart disease and diabetes. When you fail to exercise, your muscles and other tissues cannot absorb sugar from your blood glucose for energy. Consequently, your blood glucose climbs sharply. This can happen even after 5 days of inactivity per an article posted by Prevention.com. All of this results in a larger abdomen from a loss of fat-burning potential and a slower metabolism. Carrying extra weight around the middle is very dangerous.

After one week of exercise, blood sugar levels should start to decrease. This reversal can occur even for Type 2 diabetes per Dr. James Thyfault, University of Missouri. He warns, “If you stay sedentary, continuously creeping glucose readings can raise your risk of heart disease and diabetes.” Strokes, heart conditions and diabetes may be avoided with as little as 30 minutes of consistent exercise a day.

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Muscle Degeneration

Initially as you transform from a fit person to a sedentary person, you are still considered healthy by the exercise physiologists; but, you are labeled a deconditioned individual. So, no matter the reason, when you cease to exercise, there is a negative impact. Muscle atrophy sets in, you start having problems with your joints and ligaments. Your body starts to lose muscle tone and develop muscle atrophy, especially if you’re accustomed to regular resistance training. How quickly you lose muscle mass depends on your age. The older you are, the faster you will lose muscle.

Your quads and biceps commence to shrink rather swiftly. However, even if you are not a highly trained athlete, “within 10-28 days you will notice diminished muscle strength and a loss in power, including speed and agility, mobility, moving from side-to-side, the ability to stop on a dime, and a loss of coordination says Dr. Harry Pino.

Regular exercise can only slow, and not completely halt, muscle degeneration. Within about a week, your muscles lose some of their fat-burning potential and your metabolism slows down. As a result, your muscles won’t convert to fat after you stop exercising – that’s a myth; but, they will begin to decline. Fat will begin to build up and cover them.

Strength Loss

When you stop exercising, your strength outlasts your physical endurance. Strength loss occurs in the majority of people after about two and a half to three weeks of inactivity according to Molly Galbraith, Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist; co-founder of Girls Gone Strong. This does not apply to endurance and power athletes with specialized skills. The muscular strength that they have worked so hard to amass tends to decrease at a faster rate.

A study was conducted by the Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain, entitled the Physiological Effects of Tapering and Detraining in World-Class Kayakers. Their results supported “previous research showing that short-term [Training Cessation] results in larger decreases in muscle strength and power in resistance- and endurance-trained top-level athletes compared with [a Reduced Training] approach.

Moreover, muscle power appears particularly susceptible to detraining in highly conditioned athletes, being lost at a faster rate than maximal strength. These results may suggest the need of a minimal maintenance program of [Reduced Training] to avoid excessive declines in neuromuscular function and fat-free mass in cases where a prolonged break (longer than 2–3 weeks) from training is required.”

Increased Body Weight and Fat

If you take an extended leave from exercising…and if you continue to indulge in the foods you enjoy – keeping your body well stocked with high calorie delights – your fat cells will have a feast, causing your body weight to soar. Less exercise means a lower metabolism and less fat burning. As a result, you gain weight and get fat.

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In February 2014, a study was done with fifty-five professional male soccer players who stopped exercising for six weeks. This research on the Discrepancy between Exercise Performance, Body Composition, and Sex Steroid Response after a Six-Week Detraining Period in Professional Soccer Players’ concluded with definite increases in body fat percentage and increases in body weight by these athletes.

Findings from the study further showed substantial regressions in aerobic, strength, and sprint performance variations. Therefore, off-season training programs are definitely needed by highly skilled athletes for sufficient mental and physical recovery, and to sustain their most practical body composition levels.

Mood and Brain Changes

Without exercise, you have ineffective oxygen conveyance to the brain. Your body is unable to suppress chemicals that cause depression. It cannot release the chemicals that minimize depression. Occurring within a short span of time, these changes make you tired, unable to concentrate, irritable, and gloomy. They entice low self-esteem.

In the article, Depression can damage the brain, published by ScienceNordic, Professor Poul Videbech, a specialist in Psychiatry at the Centre for Psychiatric Research at Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark), stated that “depression leaves its mark on the brain as it results in a ten percent reduction of the hippocampus. In some cases, this reduction continues when the depression itself is over.” Mood changes leading to depression can damage the brain permanently leaving an individual with difficulties remembering and concentrating.

A Finnish research team performed a study using 10 sets of identical male twins between the ages of 32 and 36. Even though they had maintained the same level of physical activity and had maintained similar diets for most of their lives, there exercise habits differed over the past 3 years. The study was small and not a formal Randomized Controlled Trial; but nevertheless, the results were astounding. Two issues brought about major changes in the test results: 1) consistent exercising and 2) the lack of consistent exercising or in one case, none at all.

The twins who exercised regularly were found to have lower body fat percentages. Their endurance levels were higher, and they had more gray brain matter (for information processing), principally in areas controlling balance and motor function. However, the twins who exercised less frequently, living more sedentary lifestyles for the previous three years, carried on the average seven more pounds of body fat, had less endurance, were nearing insulin resistance – a sign of an early metabolic condition and likely type 2 diabetes. This study is a great warning of what will happen to your body when you stop exercising, and how detrimental that proves to be after only a brief time.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Many people around the world are hooked on gambling, alcohol, drugs, and sex. And yet, others are hooked on strenuous physical exercise. When these activities cease, all of the participants undergo withdrawal symptoms. Per the Counseling & Psychological Services Department at the University of California, Santa Cruz, people who exercise heavily every day, and who work out to deal with their stress, may experience withdrawals when they stop. They are likely to suffer changes in their sleep patterns, performance, energy levels, and ability to concentrate, or to feel achy and sore.

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Ph.D. student Mia Beck Lichtenstein from the University of Southern Denmark conducted their first fitness addiction study. She says, “If someone who’s addicted to physical exercise is prevented from training, that person will experience withdrawal symptoms like restlessness, frustration and guilt. It’s comparable to alcoholism, where withdrawal symptoms play an incredibly large part in the addict’s social life, family life and working life.

Conclusion

So, once you stop exercising, your VO2 Max – oxygen uptake measurement, is typically first in line to be negatively influenced. You automatically trigger a decline in your coordination, endurance, power and strength; your stamina, flexibility and energy all within a few weeks. These are very important elements of physical fitness; so the loss is severe. Along with muscle atrophy this jeopardizes your cardiovascular system.

So what’s a body to do? You get off that couch and get back on a consistent exercise routine. Just thirty minutes of daily aerobic activity strengthens your heart, improves your whole body and core mobility. If you are injured, sick or bed ridden, talk with your doctor and therapist to find out what kind of exercises you can safely perform. Failure to exercise is a life threatening choice, especially when just stop abruptly.

If exercise is to profit your health and well-being, there must be a conscious decision to begin and continue a structured exercise routine. In addition, it is essential to create and maintain balance between the amounts of exercise and the amount of time allowed for recovery from exercise sessions. Quality must always precede quantity.

Featured photo credit: From LiveScience.com via 4.bp.blogspot.com

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Published on December 13, 2019

10 Best Healthy and Natural Weight Loss Supplements

10 Best Healthy and Natural Weight Loss Supplements

So, you’ve hit the gym and tried out every diet there is under the sun… yet you can’t seem to lose any weight. Sound familiar?

Yeah… weight loss can be extremely frustrating. But does that mean you should give up? Absolutely not.

Sometimes, all you need is a little extra kick in your metabolism and the fat will come sliding off. And this is exactly what weight loss supplements are for.

But how do they work? Well, it depends on the specific supplement and the constituent ingredients. Generally speaking, though, weight loss supplements work either by reducing appetite, reducing the absorption of nutrients or increasing fat burning.

After a lot of research, I’ve compiled the 10 best healthy and natural weight loss supplements based on testing, ratings and customer reviews. I’ve also included some bonus tips that will help you get the best out of these supplements, so be sure to stick around till the end, okay?

Great – let’s get into it.

1. Transparent Labs Fat Burner

    When it comes to quality and trust, there are very few brands in the health industry that measure up to Transparent Labs. So, it’s no surprise they have one of the most powerful fat burners available in the market.

    The Transparent Labs PhysiqueSeries fat burner is the ultimate thermogenic weight loss supplement that promises rapid fat loss.

    So, how does it work?

    Well, there are two basic mechanisms behind its operation. Firstly, it contains thermogenic ingredients that increase the rate at which the body consumes energy. Secondly, it contains other ingredients that help to reduce hunger cravings, resulting in lower food consumption. And that’s just cool.

    What’s it made of?

    Although there are up to nine ingredients in the product, the primary ones are forskolin, L-Theanine, L-Tyrosine, Cayenne Pepper, caffeine and the popular Green Tea Extract.

    Forskolin is an extract from a plant in the mint family and it is highly effective for weight loss. It works by raising the level of a compound called cAMP within the cells and this stimulates the burning of fat.[1]

    The addition of L-Tyrosine is incredibly helpful as it enables the body to destroy fat and produce energy without making you feel jittery. [2] This is something you will rarely find in other powerful fat burners.

    But that’s not all – green tea increases the activity of norepinephrine – a hormone that helps to torch fat… especially the stubborn belly fat. [3] It also plays a role in hunger management.

    Isn’t that just amazing?

    Check out Transparent Labs Fat Burner here!

    2. Phen24

      Phen24 is another wonderful fat burner that you should definitely consider. It is specially formulated to increase your basal metabolic rate. In short, it helps you burn more energy for long spells during the day.

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      Besides helping you burn fat, the pills also help to reduce your food cravings and improve sleep. So if you tend to have trouble sleeping and you’re also looking to lose weight, then Phen24 will be an absolute lifesaver to you.

      The unique thing about this supplement is that it normally comes in two bottles. One of the bottles contains the day pills while the other contains the night pills.

      So, what’s in it?

      Well, it depends. The day pills contain Guarana extract, Zinc citrate, and Manganese. Here’s why that’s so cool – guarana extract suppresses the genes that produce fat cells.[4] And in addition, it contains caffeine which can boost your metabolism by up to 11 percent, leading to fat loss.[5]

      But that’s not all – manganese also helps to nourish your brain and nerves, while zinc citrate helps to boost your immune system.[6]

      The night pills mainly consist of Biotin, Pyridoxine HCl and Griffonia Extract. Biotin is great for keeping the blood sugar level in check, while Griffonia extract is a sleep-inducing agent. Pyridoxine HCl helps the body’s metabolism and ensures good condition of the arteries.

      As expected, the night pills contain no stimulants, so you can safely hit the bed, snooze off and wake up feeling better and leaner. Talk about losing weight in your sleep! It doesn’t get much cooler than that.

      Check out Phen24 here!

      3. LeanBean Fat Burner

        Okay, time for a ladies special. If you’re a woman trying to lose weight, then look no further than LeanBean fat burner. There’s a good reason why this supplement has been a top choice among fitness models and female bodybuilders – it really works.

        So, what makes it so special? Well, for starters, this supplement is formulated to adapt to the unique metabolism of women. That means you get the absolute best results.

        Here’s how it works – it suppresses appetite while simultaneously helping to torch fat. And as you could imagine, this combination results in faster weight loss.

        There are up to 12 natural ingredients in the supplement, including acai berry – which helps to cut down the level of glucose and cholesterol in the blood – Green coffee (which helps to control the level of insulin) and Chromium Picolinate.[7]

        Interestingly, unlike many fat burners, LeanBean uses Tumeric (a great appetite suppressant) instead of Caffeine, which makes it a great choice for non-caffeine folks.

        Check out LeanBean Fat Burner here!

        4. PhenQ

          PhenQ is one of the more recent natural weight loss supplements that is dominating the market… and this isn’t surprising at all. Why’s that? Let’s just say it’s a utility pill that meets several needs simultaneously.

          Besides the fact that it can help you lose weight, it has also been shown to increase muscle mass and energy levels. And that certainly comes in handy.

          So, what’s it made of?

          PhenQ contains several powerful ingredients, but it also contains a secret ingredient that the manufacturers refer to as LACYS RESET® — which helps to burn fat while gaining muscle mass.

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          But that’s not all – it also contains Capsimax powder, which helps to increase the rate of body metabolism, allowing for even more calories to be torched in the process.

          Other key ingredients in the product include Nopal and Chromium Picolinate (which are great for controlling blood sugar levels), L-Carnitine Furmarate and Caffeine.

          And as you could expect, all the above ingredients occur naturally, which makes PhenQ completely safe to use.

          Check out PhenQ here!

          5. Performance Lab SPORT Fat Burner

            Sometimes even the most hardworking athletes have a hard time preserving the physique they’ve worked so hard to get. In this case, a natural thermogenic supplement can be really helpful. And this is where Performance Lab SPORT fat burner comes in.

            The major ingredient in this product is Cayenne Pepper (from red pepper), which is known for its extreme thermogenic powers in breaking down fat and releasing energy.[8]

            But that’s not all – it also contains Forskolin – a powerful natural compound that helps the body to torch fat.[9] So, if you want to keep the fat off for good and stay in great shape, then this supplement might be all you need.

            Check out Performance Lab SPORT Fat Burner here!

            6. Phen375

              Phen375 is another fat burner that promises rapid weight loss. It is a pretty popular weight loss solution among fitness enthusiasts, especially those who engage in bulking or strength training.

              Just like most standard fat burners, it works by suppressing your appetite, increasing your body’s metabolism and raising your energy levels.

              The major ingredients of Phen375 are Cayenne pepper, a thermogenic agent that heats the body to burn fat and Chromium Picolinate, an agent which works synergistically with Cayenne pepper to prolong the fat burning process.[10]

              What’s more? Phen375 features Citrus Aurantium, a plant that helps to increase energy levels and initiate fat burning. Talk about fat destruction from all angles.

              Check out Phen375 here!

              7. Hourglass Fit Fat Burner

                Here’s another ladies special. If you’re looking to drop some unwanted pounds and get your beach body back, then the Hourglass Fit Fat Burner may be all you need.

                The great thing about this supplement is that it was custom made to specifically fit the unique physiology of women. That means it should work more efficiently without putting you at risk.

                Interestingly, even though this supplement is still relatively new in the market, its popularity is the roof. And that could only mean one thing – it works.

                Okay, so, what’s in it?

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                Well, the primary ingredients are Vitamin D3, Capsimax, Glucomannan, and Guarana.[11] Vitamin D3 helps your bone and heart, while glucomannan and Guarana help you to torch that body fat you despise so much.[12]

                Okay, having said all that, you probably shouldn’t take this product if you’re on intermittent fasting. If you feel you must, then please speak to your doctor first.

                Check out Hourglass Fit Fat Burner here!

                8. CrazyMass Cutting Stack

                  If you’re looking for a companion supplement to accelerate your weight loss efforts, CrazyMass Cutting Stack is one of the best solutions out there.

                  As the name suggests, this product is designed to help you cut down fat quickly… usually in less than two months. And as a bonus, it helps you to build muscle too. No wonder it’s so popular among bodybuilders and professional athletes.

                  The unique thing here is that unlike other fat burners that just contain a single product, the CrazyMass Cutting Stack contains multiple products, each with its own unique functionality.

                  How does that help you? Well, it simply means you get to lose weight faster since you’re attacking the problem from multiple angles.

                  What’s in the stack?

                  In every stack, you get Testosteroxn (for building muscle and strength), P-VAR (for cutting fat and preserving muscle), Winnidrol (for promoting strength and lean muscle mass), and Clentrimix (for torching fat).

                  All of these ingredients combine to help you burn fat and build stronger muscles.

                  Check out CrazyMass Cutting Stack here!

                  9. Evlution Leanmode

                    Another weight loss supplement that has been trending for a while is Evlution Leanmode. And you’d be amazed by the huge amount of positive reviews you’d find for this product online.

                    So, what makes it so special? Its powerful ingredients, of course. To mention a few, Evlution Leanmode contains Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Green Coffee Bean Extract, Garcinia Cambogia and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).

                    And all of these ingredients have been scientifically proven to be effective in reducing fat cells and boosting the body’s metabolism.[13] [14] So, with a proper diet, there’s no limit to how much weight you can lose with this supplement.

                    Check out Evlution Leanmode here!

                    10. Hunter Burn

                      If you don’t mind paying extra for a premium fat burner that promises “real” results, then Hunter Burn would make a great choice. The plethora of positive reviews from satisfied users is sufficient proof of this.

                      So, what’s in it? Well, it’s got a bunch of powerful ingredients including glucomannan, white kidney bean, cayenne pepper, L-theanine, and vitamin d, to mention a few.

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                      L-Theanine helps to boost your mood and reduce the build-up of fat.[15] White Kidney Bean prevents the body from absorbing too many calories, thereby preventing weight gain.[16]

                      Not a fan of caffeine? No problem. It will interest you to know that Hunter Burn is void of caffeine, which makes it perfect for you.

                      Hunter Burn is a bit pricey, though. But if you’ve got some spare change to invest, it is definitely worth every cent you spend on it.

                      Check out Hunter Burn here!

                      Bonus Tips

                      Okay, weight loss supplements are great. But as good as they may be, you shouldn’t base your entire weight-loss efforts on them. Here’s how to really get the pounds off.

                      1. Watch What You Eat

                      So, here’s the deal – you are what you eat. And as good as weight loss supplements are, they’re not magic pills. So, if you’re serious about dropping those unwanted pounds, then you really need to pay attention to what goes into your mouth each day.

                      For starters, you need to stay away from high-calorie foods and switch to clean foods, instead. Maintaining a proper balance between nutrition and supplementation is one of the keys to rapid weight loss.

                      2. Don’t Ignore Exercise

                      Okay, you may not want to hear this, but if you want to lose fat and keep it off for good, then you might want to get used to working out. Besides helping you lose weight, working out regularly helps your heart, lungs, and muscles to stay in excellent condition.[17]

                      So, where do you start? Well, just like pretty much everything else in life, always start off easy. And it’s simple… really. Just go for a daily walk around the neighborhood. Ditch the elevator and take the stairs at work. Lift a basket instead of pushing a cart on your next grocery trip. Just stay active.

                      Once your body gains a little fitness, you might want to consider signing up for a fitness class. And if you find yourself being easily out of breath when working out, then you should consider investing in a pre-workout supplement. [18] Trust me… it helps.

                      3. Sleep More

                      As bogus as it may sound, you can actually lose weight by sleeping. How’s that even possible, right? Well, here’s the thing:

                      Prolonged physical and mental activities cause stress, which results from the increased release of cortisol aka., the stress hormone. Increased cortisol production consequently causes weight gain.[19]

                      So, how does sleep help? Well, sleep hinders cortisol production thereby reducing the feelings of stress. That’s why you feel so good after a long night’s rest. And the reduced production of cortisol consequently reduces weight gain.

                      4. If All Else Fails, THere’s Always Surgery

                      In the case of life-threatening obesity, weight loss supplements may not quite cut it. So, at this point, you might want to consider weight-loss surgery, aka., bariatric surgery.[20]

                      But as you could imagine, bariatric surgeries can be pretty expensive. But if you’ve got a decent health insurance cover, you might be able to save some cost. Even government-issued insurance programs like Medicaid may cover bariatric surgery in some US states.[21] So, with a little research, you just might find an affordable option that works for you.

                      Bottom Line

                      So here’s the bottom line – weight loss supplements work… you just need to find the right one. And luckily for you, you’ve got this list.

                      Just remember that weight-loss supplements aren’t magic pills. To get the best out of them, you need to pay proper attention to healthy eating and physical activity.

                      So, what are you waiting for? Pick a weight-loss supplement that resonates with you and give your fitness journey a much-needed boost. In no time, you’ll look in the mirror and be excited at what you see. You’ve got this!

                      Featured photo credit: MAX LIBERTINE via unsplash.com

                      Reference

                      [1] NCBI: The effects of forskolin and rolipram on cAMP, cGMP and free fatty acid levels in diet induced obesity.
                      [2] NCB: L-Tyrosine to alleviate the effects of stress?
                      [3] Source: Green tea catechins, caffeine and body-weight regulation
                      [4] NCBI: Modulatory Effects of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) on Adipogenesis.
                      [5] NCBI: Normal caffeine consumption: influence on thermogenesis and daily energy expenditure in lean and postobese human volunteers.
                      [6] NCBI: Zinc in Human Health: Effect of Zinc on Immune Cells
                      [7] NCBI: Effects of Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) berry preparation on metabolic parameters in a healthy overweight population: a pilot study.
                      [8] NCBI: Effects of red-pepper diet on the energy metabolism in men.
                      [9] Healthline: Does Forskolin Actually Work? An Evidence-Based Review
                      [10] NCBI: A double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) study.
                      [11] NCBI: Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana)
                      [12] NCBI: Experiences with three different fiber supplements in weight reduction.
                      [13] NCBI: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects.
                      [14] Source: How Garcinia Cambogia Can Help You Lose Weight and Belly Fat
                      [15] NCBI: L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state.
                      [16] NCBI: Effect of a purified amylase inhibitor on carbohydrate tolerance in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus.
                      [17] Research Gate: Benefits, need and importance of daily exercise
                      [18] Source: Pre Workout Supplements
                      [19] NCBI: Cortisol, obesity and the metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study of obese subjects and review of the literature
                      [20] ASMBS: Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery
                      [21] Bariatric Journal: Does Medicaid Cover Bariatric Surgery?

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