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Social Scientists Find That Introverts See The World More Accurately Than Extroverts

Social Scientists Find That Introverts See The World More Accurately Than Extroverts

No one can deny that introverts and extroverts are two very different types of people. Extroverts are favored in today’s society. Many people think that extroversion is normal, while introversion is abnormal. Introverts are typically ridiculed and often misunderstood by extroverts.

Introverts make up a third to half of the U.S. population, and personality tests, like Myers-Briggs, have shone light upon several personality types, including various forms of introversion.

Susan Cain, TED talk speaker and author of The New York Times bestseller, Quiet, has grown global awareness about the issues faced by introverts, and has discussed the reasons why they are often misunderstood. Moreover, a new study has found that introverts have a more accurate perception of the social world than extroverts do. This study is strongly based on the friendship paradox.

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What Is The Friendship Paradox?

In 1991, SUNY’s Scott Feld observed a phenomenon that led him to the theory that most people have fewer friends than their friends have on average. The sociologist explained that due to this, it makes sense that people might interpret themselves as being inadequate in some way for seeming to have fewer friends than those around them; however, it is actually the norm for people to have friends who have more friends than them on average.

The Dartmouth Study

Two Dartmouth researchers, Daniel Feiler and Adam Kleinbaum, studied the interaction of two key factors among a group of 284 MBA students: extroversion and homophily. Homophily is the notion that people with similar levels of introversion or extroversion are more likely to be friends with people of the same group.

Their findings were quite predictable. Since extroverted people are likely to connect with other extroverts, their social networks often contain an overwhelming majority of extroverts. The same is true for introverts.

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The data also showed that extroverts believed that others were more extroverted than them- this being a trick of perception due to the way that social networks form.

“If you’re more extroverted, you might really have a skewed view of how extroverted other people are in general,” Feiler says. “If you’re very introverted, you might actually have a pretty accurate idea.”

Introverts are likely to have networks that represent a fuller demographic of a society. Introverts utilize their reserved nature to enhance their ability to observe, analyze, and understand society.

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Why Introverts’ Social Skills May Benefit Their Relationships, Self-Esteem, And Job Performance

Contrary to popular belief, introverts are not bad communicators. They just prefer to be among a small group of people rather than a large group. They value the quality of relationships over the quantity.

Would it surprise you to know that introverts are actually better managers than extroverts?

It has been scientifically shown that introverts are not just better managers of time, but also can be better managers in their approach to business.

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Wharton research professor, Adam Grant, examined the profits of different pizza franchises along with their different management styles. He found that proactive employees performed better under an introverted manager than an extroverted manager. Grant explained this result by noting that: “introverted leaders are more likely to listen carefully to suggestions and support employees’ efforts to be proactive.”

In The End

While many people still consider extroversion to be the norm, and perceive introverts as not fitting in as well socially, these cultural preferences do not necessarily reflect reality- or the capabilities that introverts possess. While introverts may be positioned as underdogs in society, as research has demonstrated, they have a lot to contribute to the world around them. In summary, introverts seem to actually perceive their social world more accurately than extroverts do, as demonstrated by the study by Daniel Feiler and Adam Kleinbaum.

Featured photo credit: Sodanie Chea via flickr.com

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Kallen Diggs

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Last Updated on January 15, 2021

7 Ways To Have More Confident Body Language

7 Ways To Have More Confident Body Language

The popular idiomatic saying that “actions speak louder than words” has been around for centuries, but even to this day, most people struggle with at least one area of nonverbal communication. Consequently, many of us aspire to have more confident body language but don’t have the knowledge and tools necessary to change what are largely unconscious behaviors.

Given that others’ perceptions of our competence and confidence are predominantly influenced by what we do with our faces and bodies, it’s important to develop greater self-awareness and consciously practice better posture, stance, eye contact, facial expressions, hand movements, and other aspects of body language.

Posture

First things first: how is your posture? Let’s start with a quick self-assessment of your body.

  • Are your shoulders slumped over or rolled back in an upright posture?
  • When you stand up, do you evenly distribute your weight or lean excessively to one side?
  • Does your natural stance place your feet relatively shoulder-width apart or are your feet and legs close together in a closed-off position?
  • When you sit, does your lower back protrude out in a slumped position or maintain a straight, spine-friendly posture in your seat?

All of these are important considerations to make when evaluating and improving your posture and stance, which will lead to more confident body language over time. If you routinely struggle with maintaining good posture, consider buying a posture trainer/corrector, consulting a chiropractor or physical therapist, stretching daily, and strengthening both your core and back muscles.

Facial Expressions

Are you prone to any of the following in personal or professional settings?

  • Bruxism (tight, clenched jaw or grinding teeth)
  • Frowning and/or furrowing brows
  • Avoiding direct eye contact and/or staring at the ground

If you answered “yes” to any of these, then let’s start by examining various ways in which you can project confident body language through your facial expressions.

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1. Understand How Others Perceive Your Facial Expressions

A December 2020 study by UC Berkeley and Google researchers utilized a deep neural network to analyze facial expressions in six million YouTube clips representing people from over 140 countries. The study found that, despite socio-cultural differences, people around the world tended to use about 70% of the same facial expressions in response to different emotional stimuli and situations.[1]

The study’s researchers also published a fascinating interactive map to demonstrate how their machine learning technology assessed various facial expressions and determined subtle differences in emotional responses.

This study highlights the social importance of facial expressions because whether or not we’re consciously aware of them—by gazing into a mirror or your screen on a video conferencing platform—how we present our faces to others can have tremendous impacts on their perceptions of us, our confidence, and our emotional states. This awareness is the essential first step towards

2. Relax Your Face

New research on bruxism and facial tension found the stresses and anxieties of Covid-19 lockdowns led to considerable increases in orofacial pain, jaw-clenching, and teeth grinding, particularly among women.[2]

The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research estimates that more than 10 million Americans alone have temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ syndrome), and facial tension can lead to other complications such as insomnia, wrinkles, dry skin, and dark, puffy bags under your eyes.[3])

To avoid these unpleasant outcomes, start practicing progressive muscle relaxation techniques and taking breaks more frequently throughout the day to moderate facial tension.[4] You should also try out some biofeedback techniques to enhance your awareness of involuntary bodily processes like facial tension and achieve more confident body language as a result.[5]

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3. Improve Your Eye Contact

Did you know there’s an entire subfield of kinesic communication research dedicated to eye movements and behaviors called oculesics?[6] It refers to various communication behaviors including direct eye contact, averting one’s gaze, pupil dilation/constriction, and even frequency of blinking. All of these qualities can shape how other people perceive you, which means that eye contact is yet another area of nonverbal body language that we should be more mindful of in social interactions.

The ideal type (direct/indirect) and duration of eye contact depends on a variety of factors, such as cultural setting, differences in power/authority/age between the parties involved, and communication context. Research has shown that differences in the effects of eye contact are particularly prominent when comparing East Asian and Western European/North American cultures.[7]

To improve your eye contact with others, strive to maintain consistent contact for at least 3 to 4 seconds at a time, consciously consider where you’re looking while listening to someone else, and practice eye contact as much as possible (as strange as this may seem in the beginning, it’s the best way to improve).

3. Smile More

There are many benefits to smiling and laughing, and when it comes to working on more confident body language, this is an area that should be fun, low-stakes, and relatively stress-free.

Smiling is associated with the “happiness chemical” dopamine and the mood-stabilizing hormone, serotonin. Many empirical studies have shown that smiling generally leads to positive outcomes for the person smiling, and further research has shown that smiling can influence listeners’ perceptions of our confidence and trustworthiness as well.

4. Hand Gestures

Similar to facial expressions and posture, what you do with your hands while speaking or listening in a conversation can significantly influence others’ perceptions of you in positive or negative ways.

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It’s undoubtedly challenging to consciously account for all of your nonverbal signals while simultaneously trying to stay engaged with the verbal part of the discussion, but putting in the effort to develop more bodily awareness now will make it much easier to unconsciously project more confident body language later on.

5. Enhance Your Handshake

In the article, “An Anthropology of the Handshake,” University of Copenhagen social anthropology professor Bjarke Oxlund assessed the future of handshaking in wake of the Covid-19 pandemic:[8]

“Handshakes not only vary in function and meaning but do so according to social context, situation and scale. . . a public discussion should ensue on the advantages and disadvantages of holding on to the tradition of shaking hands as the conventional gesture of greeting and leave-taking in a variety of circumstances.”

It’s too early to determine some of the ways in which Covid-19 has permanently changed our social norms and professional etiquette standards, but it’s reasonable to assume that handshaking may retain its importance in American society even after this pandemic. To practice more confident body language in the meantime, the video on the science of the perfect handshake below explains what you need to know.

6. Complement Your Verbals With Hand Gestures

As you know by now, confident communication involves so much more than simply smiling more or sounding like you know what you’re talking about. What you do with your hands can be particularly influential in how others perceive you, whether you’re fidgeting with an object, clenching your fists, hiding your hands in your pockets, or calmly gesturing to emphasize important points you’re discussing.

Social psychology researchers have found that “iconic gestures”—hand movements that appear to be meaningfully related to the speaker’s verbal content—can have profound impacts on listeners’ information retention. In other words, people are more likely to engage with you and remember more of what you said when you speak with complementary hand gestures instead of just your voice.[9]

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Further research on hand gestures has shown that even your choice of the left or right hand for gesturing can influence your ability to clearly convey information to listeners, which supports the notion that more confident body language is readily achievable through greater self-awareness and deliberate nonverbal actions.[10]

Final Takeaways

Developing better posture, enhancing your facial expressiveness, and practicing hand gestures can vastly improve your communication with other people. At first, it will be challenging to consciously practice nonverbal behaviors that many of us are accustomed to performing daily without thinking about them.

If you ever feel discouraged, however, remember that there’s no downside to consistently putting in just a little more time and effort to increase your bodily awareness. With the tips and strategies above, you’ll be well on your way to embracing more confident body language and amplifying others’ perceptions of you in no time.

More Tips on How to Develop a Confident Body Language

Featured photo credit: Maria Lupan via unsplash.com

Reference

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